but in 68 he was suddenly appointed to the head directorship at Berlin in place of Dorn, who was pensioned to make way for him. This post he still retains. Eckert is one of the first conductors of the day, but as a composer he is hardly destined to live. He has composed three operas, much church music, a symphony, a trio, and many pieces of smaller dimensions; but none has made anything that can be called an impression, unless it be a few songs and a fine violoncello concerto. There must be something vacillating and wanting in earnestness in the nature of the man, to have so sadly disappointed the fair hopes entertained of him by Mendelssohn in the outset of his career. [App. p.625 "date of death, Oct. 14, 1879."]
[ M. C. C. ]
ECOSSAISE. A dance, as its name implies, of Scotch origin. It was at first accompanied by the bagpipes, and in its original form was in 3-2 or 2-4 time. The modern Ecossaise, however, is a species of contredanse in quick 2-4 time, consisting of two four-bar or eight-bar sections, with repeats. Franz Schubert has written a number of Ecossaises for the piano, which will be found in his ops. 18, 33, 49, and 67. The following example of the first part of an Ecossaise dates from the commencement of the last century.
[ E. P. ]
EDINBURGH PROFESSORSHIP OF MUSIC. Founded by General John Reid, who died in 1807, leaving funds in the hands of trustees for various purposes, amongst others for endowing a chair of music in the University, and founding a concert to be given annually on his birthday, Feb. 13, in which a march and minuet of his composition should be included 'to show the taste for music about the middle of the hist century, and to keep his name in remembrance.' The Professorship was founded in Dec. 1839, and Mr. John Thomson was the first professor. He was succeeded in 1841 by Sir H. R. Bishop; in 1844 by Henry Hugo Pierson; in 1845 by John Donaldson: and in 1865 by Herbert (now Sir Herbert) S. Oakeley. The portion of the Reid bequest set apart for musical purposes is £28,500, the annual revenue from which is divided as follows:—professor, £420; assistant, £200; class expenses, £100; expenses of the Concert, £300. A sum of £3,000 was bequeathed in 1871 by Signor Theophile Bucher to be applied to bursaries or scholarships; but this will not come into operation till the death of an annuitant. The class fee for the session is 3 guineas. The duties of the professor consist in lectures and organ performances on an organ built by Hill of London at the instance ol Professor Donaldson, and placed in the Class Rooms at Park Place, which were constructed at a cost of £10,000, including the organ. The Concert takes place at the Music Hall.
[ G. ]
EDWARDS, Richard, a native of Somersetshire, born in 1523. He was educated under George Etheridge, 'one of the most excellent vocal and instrumental musicians in England'—of whom however nothing more is known. On May 11, 1540, he was admitted a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. In 1547, on the foundation of Christ Church College, he became a student there, and in the same year graduated as M. A. Antony Wood says he was also a member of Lincoln's Inn. In 1563 he was appointed Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal in succession to Richard Bower. Edwards was the compiler of and chief contributor to the collection of poems called 'The Paradise of Dainty Devices,' which was not however published until 1576, ten years after his death. He was the author of two dramatic pieces, viz. 'Damon and Pythias,' and 'Palamon and Arcite'; the first was acted at Court, and the second before Queen Elizabeth in the Hall of Christ Church, Oxford, Sept. 3, 1566. This performance so pleased Elizabeth that she sent for the author and 'gave him promise of reward.' Unless however this promise was very promptly fulfilled it must have been profitless to Edwards, as he died on October 31 following. But few examples of his skill in composition remain. The beautiful part-song, 'In going to my naked bed,' has been conjecturally assigned to him by Sir John Hawkins, and, as it is certain that he wrote the verses, it is highly probable that he also composed the music, but there is no proof of it. His charming little poem 'The Soul's Knell,' said to have been written on his death bed, is still admired.
[ W. H. H. ]
EGAN, Eugene Nicholas, an Irishman, built an organ for Lisbon Cathedral about 1740. He was scarcely four feet high; but by dint of skill obtained the preference over seven rival competitors.
[ V. de P. ]
EGMONT. Beethoven's music to Goethe's tragedy of Egmont—an Overture, 2 Soprano songs, 4 Entr'actes, Clara's death, a melodram, and a Finale, 10 numbers in all—is op. 84, and was written in 1809 and 10, the overture apparently last of all. The conclusion of the overture is identical with the finale to the whole. The pieces which, according to his custom, Beethoven was elaborating at the same time, are the Quartet in F minor (op. 95), the Goethe songs, and the B♭ Trio (op. 97). It was first performed on May 24, 1810, probably in private. To enable the music to be performed clear of the play, verses have been written with the view of connecting the movements, in Germany by Mosengeil and Bernays, and in England by Mr. Bartholomew.
[ G. ]
EHLERT, Ludwig, born at Konigsberg 1825, pianist and composer, but chiefly known as a cultivated critic and litterateur. His 'Briefe über Musik' (Berlin, 1859) contain notices of
- There was a severe contest for the Chair on this occasion; and Sterndale Bennett was among the candidates. Besides the organ mentioned in the text Professor Donaldson furnished the lecture-room with some excellent acoustical apparatus.