Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/520

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a. Examples are: hastagrābhá hand-grasping, devavandá god-praising, haviradá devouring the offering, bhuvanacyavá shaking the world, vrātyabruvá calling one's self a vrātya; akṣaparājayá failure at play, vaṣaṭkārá utterance of vashaṭ, gopoṣá prosperity in cattle, an̄gajvará pain in the limbs.

b. In a few instances, the accent is (as in compounds with ordinary adjectives: above, 1268) that of the prior member: thus, marúdvṛdha, sutékara, divícara (and other more questionable words). And dúgha milking, yielding is so accented as final: thus, madhudúgha, kāmadúgha.

c. Case-forms are especially frequent in the prior members of compounds with adjective derivatives in a showing guṇa-strengthening of the root: thus, fox example, abhayaṁkará, yudhiṁgamá, dhanaṁjayá, puraṁdará, viçvambhará, divākará, talpeçayá, diviṣṭambhá.

1271. Compounds with verbal nouns and adjectives in ana are very numerous, and have the accent always on the radical syllable (as in the case of compounds with verbal prefixes: 1150 e).

a. Examples are: keçavárdhana hair-increasing, āyuṣpratáraṇa life-lengthening, tanūpā́na body-protecting; devahéḍana hatred of the gods, puṁsúvana giving birth to males.

b. A very few apparent exceptions as regards accent are really cases where the derivative has lost its verbal character: thus, yamasādaná Yama's realm, āchádvidhāna means of protection.

c. An accusative-form is sometimes found before a derivative in ana: thus, sarūpaṁkáraṇa, ayakṣmaṁkáraṇa, subhāgaṁkáraṇa, vanaṁkáraṇa.

1272. a. The action-nouns in ya (1213) are not infrequent in composition as final member, and retain their own proper accent (as in combination with prefixes). Sufficient examples were given above (1213).

b. The same is true of the equivalent feminines in ya: see above, 1213 d.

c. The gerundives in ya (1213) hardly occur in the older language in combination with other elements than prefixes. The two nīvibhāryà and prathamavāsyà (the latter a descriptive) have the accent of the independent words of the same form; balavijñayá and áçvabudhya (?) are inconsistent with these and with one another.

1273. Compounds made with the passive participle in ta or na have the accent of their prior member (as do the combinations of the same words with prefixes: 1085 a).

a. Examples are: hástakṛta made with the hand, vīrájāta born of a hero, ghóṣabuddha awakened by noise, prajā́patisṛṣṭa created by Prajāpati, devátta given by the gods; and, of participles combined with prefixes, índraprasūta incited by Indra, bṛ́haspátipraṇutta driven away by Brihaspati, ulkā́bhihata struck by a thunderbolt, vájravihata, saṁvat-