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Retrograde Associate Motions catenated with sensitive motions.
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Retrograde Associate Motions.
Catenated with Sensitive Motions.
1. Nausea idealis. Nausea from disgustful ideas, as from nauseous stories, or disgustful sights, or smells, or tastes, as well as vomiting from the same causes, consists in the retrograde actions of the lymphatics of the throat, and of the œsophagus, and stomach; which are associated with the disgustful ideas, or sensual motions of sight, or hearing, or smell, or taste; for as these are decreased motions of the lymphatics, or of the œsophagus, or stomach, they cannot immediately be excited by the sensorial power of painful sensation, as in that case they ought to be increased motions. So much sensorial power is employed for a time on the disgustful idea, or expended in the production of inactive pain, which attends it, that the other parts of the associated chain of action, of which this disgustful idea is now become a link, is deprived of their accustomed share; and therefore first stop, and then invert their motions. Owing to deficiency of sensorial power, as explained more at large in Sect. XXXV. 1. 3.
2. Nausea a conceptu. The nausea, which pregnant women are so subject to during the first part of gestation, is owing to the reverse sympathy between the uterus and stomach, so that the increased action of the former, excited by the stimulus of the growing embryon, which I believe is sometimes attended with sensation, produces decreased actions of the latter with the disagreeable sensation of sickness with indigestion and consequent acidity. When the fetus acquires so much muscular power as to move its limbs, or to turn itself, which is called quickening, this sickness of pregnancy generally ceases.
M. M. Calcined magnesia. Rhubarb. Half a grain of opium twice a day. Recumbent posture on a sofa.
3. Vomitio vertiginosa. Sea-sickness, the irritative motions of vision, by which we balance ourselves, and preserve our perpendicularity, are disturbed by the indistinctness of their objects; which is either owing to the similarity of them, or to their distance, or to their apparent or unusual motions. Hence these irritative motions of vision are exerted with greater energy, and are in consequence attended with sensation; which, at first is agreeable, as when children swing on a rope; afterwards the irritative motions of the stomach, and of the absorbent vessels, which open their mouths into it, become inverted by their associations with them by reverse sympathy.
For the action of vomiting, as well as the disagreeable sensation of sickness, are shewn to be occasioned by defect of the sensorial power; which in this case is owing to the greater expenditure of it by the sense of vision. On the same account the vomiting, which attends the passage of a stone through the ureter, or from an inflammation of the bowels, or in the commencement of some fevers, is caused by the increased expenditure of the sensorial power by the too great action of some links of the associations of irritative motions; and there being in consequence a deficiency of the quantity required for other links of this great catenation.
It must be observed, that the expenditure of sensorial power by the retinas of the eyes is very great; which may be estimated by the perpetual use of those organs during our waking hours, and during most of our sleeping ones; and by the large diameters of the two optic nerves, which are nearly the size of a quill, or equal to some of the principal nerves, which serve the limbs.
4. Vomitio a calculo in uretere. The action of vomiting in consequence of the increased or decreased actions of the ureter, when a stone lodges in it. The natural actions of the stomach, which consist of motions subject to intermitted irritations from the fluids, which pass through it, are associated with those of the ureter; and become torpid, and consequently retrograde, by intervals, when the actions of the ureter becomes torpid owing to previous great stimulus from the stone it contains; as appears from the vomiting existing when the pain is least. When the motions of the ureter are thus lessened, the sensorial power of association, which ought to actuate the stomach along with the sensorial power of irritation, ceases to be excited into action; and in consequence the actions of the stomach become less energetic, and in consequence retrograde.
For as vomiting is a decreased action of the stomach, as explained in Sect. XXXV. 1. 3. it cannot be supposed to be produced by the pain of gravel in the ureter alone, as it should then be an increased action, not a decreased one.
The perpetual vomiting in ileus is caused in like manner by the defective excitement of the sensorial power of association by the bowel, which is torpid during the intervals of pain; and the stomach sympathizes with it. See Enteritis, Class II. 1. 2. 11. Does this symptom of vomiting indicate, whether the disease be above or below the valve of the colon? Does not the softer pulse in some kinds of enteritis depend on the sympathy of the heart and arteries with the sickness of the stomach? See Ileus and Cholera.
Hence this sickness, as well as the sickness in some fevers, cannot be esteemed an effort of nature to dislodge any offensive material; but like the sea-sickness described above, and in Sect. XX. 4. is the consequence of the associations of irritative or sensitive motions. See Class I. 1. 3. 9.
5. Vomitio ab insultu paralytico. Paralytic affections generally commence with vomiting, the same frequently happens from a violent blow with a stick on the head; this curious connection of the brain and stomach has not been explained; as it resembles the sickness in consequence of vertigo at sea, it would seem to arise from a similar cause, viz. from disturbed irritative or sensitive associations.
6. Vomitio a titillatione faucium. If the throat be slightly tickled with a feather, a nausea is produced, that is, an inverted action of the mouths of the lymphatics of the fauces, and by direct sympathy an inverted action of the stomach ensues. As these parts have frequently been stimulated at the same time into pleasurable action by the deglutition of our daily aliment, their actions become strongly associated. And as all the food, we swallow, is either moist originally, or mixed with our moist saliva in the mouth; a feather, which is originally dry, and which in some measure repels the moist saliva, is disagreeable to the touch of the fauces; at the same time this nausea and vomiting cannot be caused by the disagreeable sensation simply, as then they ought to have been increased exertions, and not decreased ones, as shewn in Section XXXV. 1. 3. But the mouths of the lymphatics of the fauces are stimulated by the dry feather into too great action for a time, and become retrograde afterwards by the debility consequent to too great previous stimulus.
7. Vomitio cute sympathetica. Vomiting is successfully stopped by the application of a blister on the back in some fevers, where the extremities are cold, and the skin pale. It was stopped by Sydenham by producing a sweat on the skin by covering the head with the bed-clothes. See Class IV. 1. 1. 3. and Suppl. I. 11. 6.