1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Alps

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ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe.

1. Position and Name.—The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas—the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark. Save the last-named, all these peninsulas of Europe are essentially mountain ranges. But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary, as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany. This chain is collectively known as the Alps, and is the most important physical feature of the European continent. The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees. They are formed of numerous ranges, divided by comparatively deep valleys, which, with many local exceptions, tend towards parallelism with the general direction of the whole mass. This, between the Dauphiné and the borders of Hungary, forms a broad band convex towards the north, while most of the valleys lie between the directions west to east and south-west to north-east. But in many parts deep transverse valleys intersect the prevailing direction of the ridges, and facilitate the passage of man, plants and animals, as well as of currents of air which mitigate the contrast that would otherwise be found between the climates of the opposite slopes.

The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb, said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks. But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see Alp), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain.

2. Limits.—These will depend on the meaning we attach to the word Alps as referring to the great mountain-chain of central Europe. If we merely desire to distinguish it from certain minor ranges (e.g. the Cévennes, the Jura, the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines), which are really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d’Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.), leading from Turin to Savona and Genoa, and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.) from Vienna to Marburg in the Mur valley, and on by Laibach to Trieste. But if we confine the meaning of the term Alps to those parts of the chain that are what is commonly called “Alpine,” where the height is sufficient to support a considerable mass of perpetual snow, our boundaries to the west and to the east must be placed at spots other than those mentioned above. To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.), leading from Cuneo (Coni) to Ventimiglia, while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstädter Tauern (5702 ft.) and the Katschberg (5384 ft.) from Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia, and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.) or the Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.), more to the west, but in either case this would exclude the Terglou (9400 ft.), the highest summit of the entire South-Eastern Alps, as well as its lower neighbours.

On the northern side the Alps (in whichever sense we take this term) are definitely bounded by the course of the Rhine from Basel to the Lake of Constance, the plain of Bavaria, and the low region of foot-hills that extend from Salzburg to the neighbourhood of Vienna. One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube, not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea. On the southern side the mountains extending from near Turin to near Trieste subside into the great plain of Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia. But what properly forms the western bit of the Alps runs, from near Turin to the Col de Tenda, in a southerly direction, then bending eastwards to the Col d’Altare that divides it from the Apennines.

It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day. Naturalists will of course prefer other limits according as they are geologists, botanists or zoologists.

3. Climate.—It is well known that as we rise from the sea-level into the upper regions of the atmosphere the temperature decreases. The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain. The position of the Alps about the centre of the European continent has profoundly modified the climate of all the surrounding regions. The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps. Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams. Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility. Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps. It is an error to suppose that these are indicated by absolute height above the sea-level. Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation.

The great plain of Upper Italy has a winter climate colder than that of the British Islands. The olive and the characteristic shrubs of the northern coasts of the Mediterranean do not thrive in the open air, but the former valuable tree ripens its fruit in sheltered places at the foot of the mountains, and penetrates along the deeper valleys and the Olive region.shores of the Italian lakes. The evergreen oak is wild on the rocks about the Lake of Garda, and lemons are cultivated on a large scale, with partial protection in winter. The olive has been known to survive severe cold when of short duration, but it cannot be cultivated with success where frosts are prolonged, or where the mean winter temperature falls below 42° F.; and to produce fruit it requires a heat of at least 75° F. during the day, continued through four or five months of the summer and autumn.

The vine is far more tolerant of cold than the olive, but to produce tolerable wine it demands, at the season of ripening, a degree of heat not much less than that needed by the more delicate tree. These conditions are satisfied in the deeper valleys of the Alps, even in the interior of the chain, and up to a considerable height on slopes exposed Vine region.to the sun. The protection afforded by winter snow enables the plant to resist severe and prolonged frosts, such as would be fatal in more exposed situations. Many wild plants characteristic of the warmer parts of middle Europe are seen to flourish along with the vine. A mean summer temperature of at least 68° F. is considered necessary to produce tolerable wine, but in ordinary seasons this is much exceeded in many of the great valleys of the Alps.

Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common species are in cultivation, and these have such different climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisfactory criterion. A more natural limit is afforded by the presence of the chief deciduous trees—oak, beech,Mountain region, or region of deciduous trees. ash and sycamore. These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the wild herbaceous vegetation. This limit usually lies about 4000 ft. above the sea on the north side of the Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 5000 ft., sometimes even to 5500 ft. It must not be supposed that this region is always marked by the presence of the characteristic trees. The interference of man has in many districts almost extirpated them, and, excepting the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, a considerable wood of deciduous trees is scarcely anywhere to be found. In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce, which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation. The mean annual temperature of this region differs little from that of the British Islands; but the climatal conditions are widely different. Here snow usually lies for several months, till it gives place to a spring and summer considerably warmer than the average of British seasons.

The Subalpine is the region which mainly determines the manner of life of the population of the Alps. On a rough estimate we may reckon that, of the space lying between the summits of the Alps and the low country on either side, one-quarter is available for cultivation, of which about one-half may be vineyards and corn-fields, while Subalpine region, or region of coniferous trees.the remainder produces forage and grass. About another quarter is utterly barren, consisting of snow-fields, glaciers, bare rock, lakes and the beds of streams. There remains about one-half, which is divided between forest and pasture, and it is the produce of this half which mainly supports the relatively large population. For a quarter of the year the flocks and herds are fed on the upper pastures; but the true limit of the wealth of a district is the number of animals that can be supported during the long winter, and while one part of the population is engaged in tending the beasts and in making cheese and butter, the remainder is busy cutting hay and storing up winter food for the cattle. The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft. to 5500 ft. above the sea, more rarely extending to about 6000 ft. The most characteristic feature of this region is the prevalence of coniferous trees, which, where they have not been artificially kept down, form vast forests that cover a large part of the surface. These play a most important part in the natural economy of the country. They protect the valleys from destructive avalanches, and, retaining the superficial soil by their roots, they mitigate the destructive effects of heavy rains. In valleys where they have been rashly cut away, and the waters pour down the slopes unchecked, every tiny rivulet becomes a raging torrent, that carries off the grassy slopes and devastates the floor of the valley, covering the soil with gravel and debris. In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height. The Scottish pine is chiefly found at a lower level and rarely forms forests. The Siberian fir is found scattered at intervals throughout the Alps but is not common. The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the level of its congeners. In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft. above the sea, but on the south side they commonly attain 7000 ft., while the larch, Siberian fir and mughus often extend above that elevation.

Throughout the Teutonic region of the Alps the word Alp is used specifically for the upper pastures where cattle are fed in summer, but this region is held to include the whole space between the uppermost limit of trees and the first appearance of permanent masses of snow. It is here that the characteristic vegetation of the Alps is developed in its Alpine region.full beauty and variety. Shrubs are not wanting. Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation. The upper limit of this region coincides with the so-called limit of perpetual snow.

On the higher parts of lofty mountains more snow falls in each year than is melted on the spot. A portion of this is carried away by the wind before it is consolidated; a larger portion accumulates in hollows and depressions of the surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, Glacial region.where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance. Similar conditions are repeated at many different points, so that the level at which large snow-beds show themselves along its flanks is approximately horizontal. But this holds good only so far as the conditions are similar. On the opposite sides of the same chain the exposure to the sun or to warm winds may cause a wide difference in the level of permanent snow; but in some cases the increased fall of snow on the side exposed to moist winds may more than compensate the increased influence of the sun’s rays. Still, even with these reservations, the so-called line of perpetual snow is not fixed. The occurrence of favourable meteorological conditions during several successive seasons may and does increase the extent of the snow-fields, and lower the limit of seemingly permanent snow; while an opposite state of things may cause the limit to rise higher on the flanks of the mountains. Hence all attempts to fix accurately the level of perpetual snow in the Alps are fallacious, and can at the best approach only to local accuracy for a particular district. In some parts of the Alps the limit may be set at about 8000 ft. above the sea, while in others it cannot be placed much below 9500 ft.

As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above 11,000 ft. There is reason to think, however, that it is the want of soil rather than climatal conditions that checks the upward extension of the alpine flora. Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure. The climate of the glacial region has often been compared to that of the polar regions, but they are widely different. Here, intense solar radiation by day, which raises the surface when dry to a temperature approaching 80° F., alternates with severe frost by night. There, a sun which never sets sends feeble rays that maintain a low equable temperature, rarely rising more than a few degrees above the freezing-point. Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation.

4. Main Chain.—In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the watershed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed. Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol, not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg, Bavaria and Salzburg. Of course each of these semi-detached ranges has a watershed of its own, like the lateral ridges that branch off from the main watershed. Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed. The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great “divide,” flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed. In the following remarks we propose to follow the main watershed from one end of the Alps to the other.

Starting from the Col d’Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees. Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Évêques (9390 ft.), just south of the Mont Enchastraye (9695 ft.), several peaks of about 10,000 ft. rising on the watershed, though the highest of all, the Punta dell’ Argentera (10,794 ft.) stands a little way to its north. From the Rocher des Trois Évêques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.), is just to the west, and the other, the Monte Viso (12,609 ft.), is just to the east of the watershed. From the head of the Val Pellice the main chain runs north-west, and diminishes much in average height till it reaches the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.), which forms the apex of a salient angle which the main chain here presents towards the west. Hence the main watershed extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette (11,500 ft.), but makes a great curve to the north-west and back to the south-east before rising in the Rochemelon (11,605 ft.), which may be considered as a re-entering angle in the great rampart by which Italy is guarded from its neighbours. Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.) of the Levanna, the watershed rising in a series of snowy peaks, though the loftiest point of the region, the Pointe de Charbonel (12,336 ft.), stands a little to the west. Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks (the highest is the Aiguille de la Grande Sassière, 12,323 ft.), before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass. Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.), the loftiest in the Alps. A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.). Thence after a short dip to the south-east, our chain takes near the Great St Bernard Pass the generally eastern direction that it maintains till it reaches Monte Rosa, whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass. It is in the portion of the watershed between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part. But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Vélan (12,353 ft.), the Matterhorn (14,782 ft.), the Lyskamm (14,889 ft.), the Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.), and the Weissmies (13,226 ft.), yet many of the highest points of the region, such as the Grand Combin (14,164 ft.), the Dent Blanche (14,318 ft.), the Weisshorn (14,804 ft.), the true summit or Dufourspitze (15,217 ft.) of Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.), all rise on its northern slope and not on the main watershed. On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft. The Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain. Thence to the St Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits (including the Monte Leone, 11,684 ft., and the Pizzo Rotondo, 10,489 ft.) rising on it, a curious contrast to the long stretch just described. From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.) and again to near the Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.), so that it presents a broken and irregular appearance. But all the loftiest peaks rise on it: Scopi (10,499 ft.), Piz Medel (10,509 ft.), the Rheinwaldhorn (11,149 ft.), the Tambohorn (10,749 ft.) and Piz Timun (10,502 ft.).

From the Maloja Pass the main watershed dips to the south-east for a short distance, and then runs eastwards and nearly over the highest summit of the Bernina group, the Piz Bernina (13,304 ft.), to the Bernina Pass. Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.), beyond which it runs slightly north-east past the sources of the Adda and the Fraële Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon bends north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna (10,568 ft.).

The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps. The little Reschen lake which forms the chief source of the Adige is only 13 ft. below the Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.), and by it is but 5 m. from the Inn valley. Eastward of this pass, the main chain runs north-east to the Brenner Pass along the snowy crest of the Oetzthal and Stubai Alps, the loftiest point on it being the Weisskugel (12,291 ft., Oetzthal), for the highest summits both of the Oetzthal and of the Stubai districts, the Wildspitze (12,382 ft.) and the Zuckerhütl (11,520 ft.) stand a little to the north.

The Brenner (4495 ft.) is almost the lowest of all the great carriage-road passes across the main chain, and has always been the chief means of communication between Germany and Italy. For some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillerthal Alps, which attains 11,559 ft. in the Hochfeiler. But, a little farther, at the Dreiherrenspitze (11,500 ft.) we have to choose between following the watershed southwards, or keeping due east along the highest crest of the Greater Tauern Alps. (a) The latter course is adopted by many geographers and has much in its favour. The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.), for the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.) rises to the south. Our chain bends north-east near the Radstädter Tauern Pass, and preserves that direction through the Lesser Tauern Alps to the Semmering Pass. (b) On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.), the culminating point of the Rieserferner group, and then sinks to the Toblach Pass, but at a point a little east of the great Dolomite peak of the Drei Zinnen it bends east again, and rises in the Monte Coglians (9128 ft., the monarch of the Carnic Alps). Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.), the highest point of the Julic Alps, though the Grintovc (8429 ft., the culminating point of the Karawankas Alps) stands more to the east. Finally our watershed turns south and ends near the great limestone plateau of the Birnbaumerwald, between Laibach and Görz.

As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges. Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 161/2 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each 10 m.) are all in the Bernese Oberland. In the main chain the two longest are both 91/4 m., the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner at Zermatt. In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 61/4 m.), which is not near the true main watershed, though it clings to the slope of the Greater Tauern range, east of the Dreiherrenspitze. But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps (the Hintereis, 61/4 m., and the Gepatsch, 6 m.) are both in the Oetzthal Alps, and so close to the true main watershed.

The so-called alpine lakes are the sheets of water found at the foot of the Alps, on either slope, just where the rivers that form them issue into the plains. There are, however, alpine lakes higher up (e.g. the lake of Thun, and those in the Upper Engadine, in the heart of the mountains, though these are naturally smaller in extent, while the true lakes of the High Alps are represented by the glacier lakes of the Marjelensee (near the Great Aletsch glacier) and those on the northern slope of the Col de Fenetre, between Aosta and the Val de Bagnes. The most singular, and probably the loftiest, lake in the Alps is the ever-frozen tarn that forms the summit of the Roccia Viva (11,976 ft.) in the Eastern Graians.

Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers. In the former class are the Isère, the Rhone, the Aar, the Ticino, the Tosa, the Hinter (or main) Rhine and the Linth; while in the latter class we have the Durance, the Po, the Reuss, the Vorder and middle branches of the Rhine, the Inn, the Adda, the Oglio and the Adige. The Piave and the Drave seem to be outside either class.

5. Principal Passes.—Though the Alps form a barrier they have never formed an impassable barrier, since, from the earliest days onwards, they have been traversed first, perhaps, for purposes of war or commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists. The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains. Hence the oldest name for such passes is Mont (still retained in cases of the Mont Cenis and the Monte Moro), for it was many ages before this term was especially applied to the peaks of the Alps, which with a few very rare exceptions (e.g. the Monte Viso was known to the Romans as Vesulus) were long simply disregarded. The native inhabitants of the Alps were naturally the first to use the alpine passes. But to the outer world these passes first became known when the Romans traversed them in order to conquer the world beyond. In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps. For obvious reasons the Romans, having once found an easy direct pass across the main chain, did not trouble to seek for harder and more devious routes. Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l’Argentière, the Mont Genèvre, the two St Bernards, the Splügen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radstädter Tauern, the Sölkscharte, the Plöcken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz). Of these the Mont Genèvre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Splügen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans. In fact the central portion of the Alps was by far the least Romanised and least known till the early middle ages. Thus the Simplon is first certainly mentioned in 1235, the St Gotthard (without name) in 1236, the Lukmanier in 965, the San Bernardino in 941; of course they may have been known before, but authentic history is silent as regards them till the dates specified. Even the Mont Cenis (from the 15th to the 19th century the favourite pass for travellers going from France to Italy) is first heard of in 756 only. In the 13th century many hitherto unknown passes came into prominence, even some of the easy glacier passes. It should always be borne in mind that in the Western and Central Alps there is but one ridge to cross, to which access is gained by a deep-cut valley, though often it would be shorter to cross a second pass in order to gain the plains, e.g. the Mont Genèvre, that is most directly reached by the Col du Lautaret; and the Simplon, which is best gained by one of the lower passes over the western portion of the Bernese Oberland chain. On the other hand, in the Eastern Alps, it is generally necessary to cross three distinct ridges between the northern and southern plains, the central ridge being the highest and most difficult. Thus the passes which crossed a single ridge, and did not involve too great a detour through a long valley of approach, became the most important and the most popular, e.g. the Mont Cenis, Llie Great St Bernard, the St Gotthard, the Septimer and the Brenner. As time went on the travellers (with whatever object) who used the great alpine passes could not put up any longer with the bad old mule paths. A few passes (e.g. the Semmering, the Brenner, the Tenda and the Arlberg) can boast of carriage roads constructed before 1800, while those over the Umbrail and the Great St Bernard were not completed till the early years of the 10th century. Most of the carriage roads across the great alpine passes were thus constructed in the 19th century (particularly its first half), largely owing to the impetus given by Napoleon. As late as 1905, the highest pass over the main chain that had a carriage road was the Great St Bernard (8111 ft.), but three still higher passes over side ridges have roads-the Stelvio (9055 ft.), the Col du Galibier (8721 ft.), in the Dauphine Alps, and the Umbrail Pass (8242 ft.). Still more recently the main alpine chain has been subjected to the further indignity of having railway lines carried over it or through it-the Brenner and the Pontebba lines being cases of the former, and the Col de Tenda, the Mont Cenis (though the tunnel is really 17 m. to the west), the Simplon and the St Gotthard, not to speak of the side passes of the Arlberg, Albula and Pyhrn of the latter. There are also schemes (more or less advanced) for piercing the Splügen and the Hohe Tauern, both on the main ridge, and the Lötschen Pass, on one of the external ranges. The numerous mountain railways, chiefly in Switzerland, up various peaks (e.g. the Rigi and Pilatus) and over various side passes (e.g. the Brünig and the Little Scheidegg) do not concern us here.

6. Divisions.—The Alps, within the limits indicated under (2) above, form a great range, consisting of a main chain, with ramifications, and of several parallel minor chains. They thus form a single connected whole as contrasted with the plains at their base, and nature has made no breaks therein, save at the spots where they sink to comparatively low depressions or passes. But for the sake of practical convenience it has long been usual to select certain of the best marked of these passes to serve as limits within the range, whether to distinguish several great divisions from each other, or to further break up each of these great divisions into smaller groups. As these divisions, great or small, are so to speak artificial, several systems have been proposed according to which the Alps may be divided. We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences. Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstädter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise. No attempt, of course, has been made to give a complete catalogue of the peaks and passes of the Alps, while in the case of the peaks the culminating point of a lower half-detached group has been included rather than the loftier spurs of the higher and main group; in the case of the passes, the villages or valleys they connect have been indicated, and also the general character of the route over each pass.

As regards the main divisions, three are generally distinguished; the Western Alps (chiefly French and Italian, with a small bit of the Swiss Valais) being held to extend from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass, the Central Alps (all but wholly Swiss and Italian) thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass, and the Eastern Alps (wholly Austrian and Italian, save the small Bavarian bit at the north-west angle) thence to the Radstädter Tauern route, with a bend outwards towards the south-east, as explained under (2) in order to include the higher summits of the South-Eastern Alps. Strictly speaking, we should follow the Reschen Scheideck route down the Adige valley, but as this would include in the Central Alps the Ortler and some other of the highest Tirolese summits, it is best (remembering the artificial character of the division) to draw a line from Mals southwards either over the Umbrail Pass (the old historical pass) or the Stelvio (well-known only since the carriage road was built over it in the first quarter of the 19th century) to the head of the Valtellina, and then over the Aprica Pass (as the Bergamasque Alps properly belong to the Central Alps) to the Oglio valley or the Val Camonica, and down that valley to the Lake of Iseo and Brescid.

Assuming these three main divisions, we must now consider in detail the 18 sub-divisions which we distinguish; the first 5 forming the Western Alps, the next 7 the Central Alps, and the rest the Eastern Alps, the heights throughout being, of course, given in English feet and representing the latest measurements.

I. Western Alps

1. Maritime Alps (from the Col de Tenda to the Col de l’Argentière).

Chief Peaks of the Maritime Alps.

Punta dell’ Argentera . . 10,794 Mont Tinibras. . . . . . . . 9,948
Cima dei Golas. . . . . . . 10,286 Mont Enchastraye . . . . 9,695
Monte Matto . . . . . . . . . 10,128 Monte Bego . . . . . . . . . 9,426
Mont Pelat. . . . . . . . . . 10,017 Mont Monnier . . . . . . . . 9,246
Mont Clapier. . . . . . . . .  9,994 Rocca dell’ Abisso . . . . 9,039

Chief Passes of the Maritime Alps.

Passo del Pagarin (Vésubie Valley to Valdieri), snow 9,236
Col di Fremamorta (Tinée Valley to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,688
Bassa di Druos (same to same), bridle path 8,629
Passo di Collalunga (Tinée Valley to Vinadio), bridle path 8,531
Coll dell’ Agnel (Tenda to Valdieri), foot path. 8,426
Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vésubie to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,370
Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinée to Barcelonnette), bridle path  8,242
Col de Pourriac (Tinée Valley to Argentera), foot path 8,222
Col della Finestre (St Martin de Vésubie to Valdieri), bridle. 8,107
Col di Guercia (Tinée Valley to Vinadio), foot path. 8,042
Col della Lombarda (same to same), bridle path 7,858
Col de la Cayolle (Var Valley to Barcelonnette), carriage. 7,717
Col di Santa Anna (Tinée Valley to Vinadio), bridle path 7,605
Col del Sabbione (Tenda to Valdieri), bridle path. 7,428
Col d’Allos or de Valgelaye (Verdon Valley to Barcelonnette), carriage road 7,382
Col de l’Argentière (Barcelonnette to Cuneo), carriage road. 6,545
Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath. 6,145

2. Cottian Alps (from the Col de l’Argentière to the Mont Cenis and westwards
to the Col du Galibier).

Chief Peaks of the Cottian Alps.

Monte Viso 12,609   Dents d’Ambin 11,096
Viso di Vallante 12,048  Mont d’Ambin 11,080
Aiguille de Scolette 11,500  Pointe de la Font Sancte  11,057
Aiguille de Chambeyron 11,155  Punta Ferrant 11,037
Grand Rubren 11,142  Visolotto 11,001
Bree de Chambeyron 11,116  Rochebrune 10,906
Rognosa d’Etache 11,106  Punta Sommeiller 10,896
Bric Froid 10,860  Tête des Toillies 10,430
Grand Glavza 10,781  Monte Granero 10,401
Rognosa di Sestrières 10,758  Mont Chaberton 10,286
Panestrel 10,673  Tete de Moyse 10,204
Roche du Grand Galibier  10,637  Monte Meidassa 10,187
Péou Roc 10,601  Pelvo d’Elva 10,053
Pic du Pelvat 10,558  Mont Politri 10,009
Pointe Haute de Mary 10,539  Mont Albergian  9,974
Pic du Thabor 10,316  Brio Bouchet  9,853
Mont Thabor 10,440  Punta Cournour  9,410
Pointe des Cerces 10,434
Chief Passes of the Cottian Alps.
Col Sommeiller (Bardonnèche to Bramans), snow 9,718
Col de la Traversette (Crissolo to Aliries), mainly bridle
beneath pass tunnel made in 1478–1480 9,679
Col d’Ambin (Exilles to Bramans), snow 9,364
Col de St Véran (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), foot path 9,331
Col d’Etache (Bardonnèche to Bramans), bridle path 9,144
Col dell’ Agnello (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), bridle path 9,003
Col Girardin (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), bridle path 8,855
Col de Sautron (Val Maira to Barcelonnette), bridle path 8,823
Col de Longet (Ubaye Valley to Val Varaita), bridle path 8,767
Col de Mary or de Maurin ( Ubaye Valley to Val Maira), bridle path 8,708
Col d’Abriès or de Prali (Perosa to Abriès), bridle path 8,695
Col de la Roue (Bardonneche to Modane), bridle path 8,419
Col de Freius (same to same), carriage road, beneath which
is the the so-called Mont Cenis railway tunnel 8,294
Col de Clapier (Bramans to Susa), bridle path 8,173
Col d’Izouard (Briançon to the Queyras Valley), carriage path 7,835
Col de la Croix (Torre Pellice to Abriès); bridle path 7,576
Petit Mont Cenis (Bramans to the Mont Cenis Plateau), bridle path 7,166
Col de Vars (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), carriage path 6,939
Mont Cenis (Lanslebourg to Susa), carriage road 6,893
Col de Sestrieres (Pignerol to Césanne), carriage road 6,631
Mont Genèvre (Briançon to Césanne), carriage road 6,083
Col des Echelles de Planpipinet (Briançon to Bardonnèche),
partly carriage road 5,774
3. Dauphiné Alps (from the Col du Galibier, westwards and southwards).

Chief Peaks of the Dauphiné Alps.

Pointe des Écrins 13,462  Vieux Chaillol 10,378
Meije 13,081 Tete de Vautisse 10,375
Ailefroide 12,989 Grand Pinier 10,237
Mont Pelvoux 12,973 Pic de Parières 10,007
Pic Sans Nom 12,845 Mourre Froid 9,830
Pic Gaspard 12,730 Belledonne (highest) 9,781
Pic Coolidge 12,323 Rocherblanc (Sept Laux) 9,617
Grande Ruine 12,317 Taillefer 9,387
Rateau 12,317 Pic du Frêne 9,219
Montagne des Agneaux 12,008 Tete de l’Obiou 9,164
Les Bans 11,979 Grand Ferrand 9,059
Sommet des Rouies 11,923 Pic de Bure (Aurouse) 8,898
Aiguille du Plat 11,818 Grand Veymont 7,697
Pic d’Olan 11,735 Mont Aiguille 6,880
Pic Bonvoisin 11,680 Chamechaude 6,847
Aiguilles d’Arves (highest)  11,529 Dent de Crolles 6,779
Grandes Rousses 11,395 Grand Sore 6,670
Roche de la Muzelle 11,349 Mont Granier 6,358
Sirac 11,280 Dent du Chat 4,593
Pic Félix Neff 10,571

Chief Passes of the Dauphiné Alps.

Col de la Lauze (St Christophe to La Grave), snow 11,625
Col des Avalanches (La Bérarde to Vallouise), snow 11,520
Col de la Casse Deserte (La Bérarde to La Grave), snow 11,516
Col Émile Pic (La Grave to Vallouise), snow 11,490
Col des Ecrins (La Bérarde to Vallouise), snow 11,205
Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow 10,854
Col du Sélé (La Bérarde to Vallouise), snow 10,834
Brèche de la Meile (La Bérarde to la Grave), snow 10,827
Col de la Temple (La Bérarde to Vallouise), snow 10,772
Col des Aiguilles d’Arves (Valloire to St Jean d’Arves), snow 10,335
Col du Says (La Bérarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow 10,289
Col du Clot des Cavales (La Bérarde to La Grave), snow 10,263
Col du Loup du Valgaudemar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow 10,210
Col Lombard (La Grave to St Jean d’Arves), snow 10,171
Brèche des Grandes Rousses (Allemont to Clavans), snow 10,171
Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow 10,063
Col de la Muande (St Christophe to the Val Gaudemar), snow 10,037
Col des Quirlies (St Jean d’Arves to Clavans), snow  9,679
Col du Goléon (La Grave to Valloire), foot path  9,449
Pas de la Cavale (Vallouise to Champoléon), carriage road  8,990
Col d’Orcières (Dormillouse to Orcières), bridle path  8,859
Col de l’Infernet (La Grave to St Jean d’Arves), foot path  8,826
Col du Galibier (Lautaret Hospice to St Michel de Maurienne), carriage road  8,721
Brèche de Valsenestre (Bourg d’Oisans to Valsenestre), foot path  8,642
Col de Vallonpierre (Val Gaudemar to Champoléon), foot path  8,596
Col de Val Estrète (same to same), foot path  8,596
Col de Vaurze (Val Gaudemar to Val Jouffrey), foot path  8,531
Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d’Arves), foot path  8,531
Col des Tourettes (Orcières to Châteauroux), bridle path  8,465
Col de la Muzelle (St Christophe to Valsenestre), foot path  8,202
Col de l’Eychauda (Vallouise to Monestier), bridle path  7,970
Col d’Arsine (La Grave to Monestier), bridle path  7,874
Col des Prés Nouveaux (Le Freney to St Jean d’Arves), bridle path  7,523
Col dessept Lanx (Allevard to Bourg d’Oisans), bridle path  7,166
Col du Lautaret (Briancon to Bourg d’Oisans), carriage road  6,808
Col de la Croix de Fer (Bourg d’Oisans to St Jean d’Arves), carriage  6,765
Col du Glandon (Bourg d’Oisans to La Chambre), carriage road  6,401
Col de l’Alpe de Vénosc (Vénosc to Le Freney), bridle path  5,446
Col d’Ornon (Bourg d’Oisans to La Mure), carriage road  4,462
Col Bayard (La Mure to Gap), carriage road  4,088
Col de la Croix Haute (Grenoble to Veynes and Gap), railway line over  3,829

4. Graian Alps (from the Mont Cenis to the Little St Bernard Pass). These are usually divided into three groups, the Central (the watershed between the two passes named), the Western or French, and the Eastern or Italian; in the following lists the initials “C,” “W,” and “E” show to which group each peak and pass belongs.

Chief Peaks of the Graian Alps.

Grand Paradis (E) 13,324  Tete du Rutor (C) 11,438
Grivola (E) 13,022  Grande Aiguille Rousse (C) 11,424
Oirande Casse (W) 12,668  Granta Parey (C) 11,395
Mont Pourri (W) 12,428  Roc du Mulinet (C) 11,382
Mont Herbetet (E) 12,396  Aiguille Pers (C) 11,323
Pointe de Charbonel (C) 12,336  Pointe de la Sana (W) 11,319
Aiguille de la Grande Sassière (C)  12,323  Cima dell’ Auille (C) 11,306
Dent Parrachée (W) 12,179  Pointe de l’Échelle (W) 11,260
Tour du Grand St Pierre (E) 12,113  Punta Fourà (E) 11,188
Uja di Ciamareila (C) 12,061  Pointe des Sengies (E) 11,182
Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025  Pointe de la Gliere (W) 11,109
Grande Motte (W) 12,018  Pointe de la Galise (C) 10,975
Albaron (C) 12,015  Pointe de la Traversiere (C) 10,962
Roccia Viva (E) 11,976  Pointe de Mean Martin (W) 10,949
Levanna (C) 11,943  Punta Lavina (E) 10,854
Bessanese (C) 11,917  Ormelune (C) 10,771
Punta di Gaij (E) 11,887  Roche Chevriere (W) 10,768
Dôme de l’Arpont (W) 11,874  Signaldu Montlseran (C) 10,634
Pointe de Ronco (C) 11,871  Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575
Bec de l’lnvergnan (C) 11,838  Grand Assaly (C) 10,414
Tsanteleina (C) 11,831  Roisebanque (E) 10,381
Dôme de Chasseforet (W) 11,802  Bocca di Nona (E) 10,309
Croce Rossa (C) 11,703  Torre d’Ovarda (C) 10,089
Aiguille de Péclet (W) 11,700  Pointe du Pousset (E)  9,994
Mont Einilius (E) 11,677  Dôme de Val d’Isère (C)  9,951
Punta d’Arnas (C) 11,615  Uja di Mondrone (C)  9,725
Aiguille de Polset (W) 11,608  Bellagarda (C)  9,643
Rochemelon (C) 11,605  Monte Marzo (E)  9,023
Mont Chalanson(C) 11,582  Petit Mont Blanc de Pralognan (W)  8,809
Tersiva (E) 11,526  Mont Jouvet (W)  8,409
Grande Traversiere (C) 11,467  Monte Civrari (C)  7,553

Chief Passes of the Graian Alps.

Col de la Grande Rousse (Rhèmes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow (C) 11,483
Col de Gébroulaz (Arc Valley to Moûtiers Tarentaise), snow (W) 11,385
Col de Monel (Cogne to Locana), snow (E) 11,247
Col du Grand Paradis (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) 10,988
Col du Charforon (same to same), snow (E) 10,929
Col de Teleccio (Cogne to Locana), snow (E) 10,913
Col de Lauzon (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E) 10,831
Col du Bouquetin (Bonneval to Val d’Isère), snow (C) 10,827
Col de St Grat (Val Grisanche to La Thuille), snow (C) 10,827
Col de l’Herbetet (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) 10,686
Col du Collerin (Bessans to Balme), snow (C) 10,506
Col du Grand Etret (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) 10,361
Col de Bassac (Rhèmes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow (C) 10,345
Col du Carro (Bonneval to Ceresole), snow (C) 10,302
Col d’Arbole (Comboe to Brissogne), snow (E) 10,292
Col de la Goletta (Val d’Isère to the Rhèmes Valley), snow (C) 10,237
Col de Rhèmes (same to same), snow (C) 10,174
Col de la Grande Casse (Pralognan to the Premou Glen), snow (W) 10,171
Col de Sea (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Graie), snow (C) 10,115
Col de l’Autaret (Bessans to Usseglio), foot path (C) 10,073
Col de Girard (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Graie), snow (C)  9,987
Col Rosset (Val Savaranche to the Rhèmes Valley), bridle path (C)  9,922
Col d’Arnas (Bessans to Balme), snow (C)  9,889
Col de la Galise (Ceresole to Val d’Isère), snow (C)  9,836
Col de Sort (Val Savaranche to the Rhèmes Valley), partly bridle path  9,735
Quecées de Tignes (Val d’Isère to Termignon), snow (W)  9,646
Col della Nouva (Cogne to Pont Canavese), partly bridle path (E)  9,623
Col de Garin (Aosta to Cogne), foot path (E)  9,411
Collarin d’Arnas (Balme to Usseglio), snow (C)  9,351
Finestra del Torrent (Rhèmes Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path  9,341
Fenêtre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E)  9,311
Col de Vaudet (Isère Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path (C)  9,305
Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E)  9,295
Col de Chaviere (Modane to Pralognan), foot path (W)  9,206
Col de la Leisse (Tignes to Termignon), snow (W)  9,121
Col du Mont Iseran (Bonneval to Val d’Isère), bridle path (C)  9,085
Ghicet di Sea (Balme to Forno Alpi Graie), foot path (C)  8,973
Col de la Sachette (Tignes to Bourg St Maurice), foot path (W)  8,954
Col du Palet (Tignes to Moûtiers Tarentaise or Bourg St Maurice), bridle path (W)  8,721
Col du Mont (Ste Foy to the Val Grisanche), bridle path (C)  8,681
Col de la Croix de Nivolet (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E)  8,665
Col della Crocetta (Ceresole to Forno Alpi Graie), bridle path (C)  8,649
Col de la Platière (St Jean de Maurienne to Moûtiers Tarentaise), partly bridle path (W)  8,531
Col de la Vanoise (Pralognan to Termignon), bridle path (W)  8,291
Col des Encombres (St Michel de Maurienne to Moûtiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W)  7,668
Little St Bernard (Aosta to Moûtiers Tarentaise), carriage road (C)  7,179
Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to Moûtiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W)  6,509

5. Pennine Alps (from the Little St Bernard to the Simplon Pass). This range contains all the highest peaks in the Alps, save the Finsteraarhorn (14,026) in the Bernese Oberland.

Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps.

Mont Blanc 15,782 Aiguille de la Za 12,051
Monte Rosa (Dufourspitze)  15,217 Mont Collon 11,956
Nord End (Monte Rosa) 15,132 Diablons 11,828
Dom (Mischabelhörner) 14,942 Aiguille de Tour 11,615
Lyskamm 14,889 Mont Gelé 11,539
Weisshorn 14,804 Bec de Luseney 11,503
Matterhorn 14,782 Aiguille de Grepon 11,489
Täschhorn 14,758 Château des Dames 11,447
Mont Maudit 14,669 Aiguille des Charmoz 11,293
Dent Blanche 14,318 Aiguille du Tacul 11,280
Dôme du Goûter 14,210 Grand Tournalin 11,086
Grand Combin 14,164 Pointe de Rosa Blanche 10,985
Castor 13,879 Mont Avril 10,962
Zinal Rothhorn 13,856 Grande Rochere 10,913
Alphubel 13,803 Corno Bianco 10,893
Grandes Jorasses 13,797 Grauhaupt 10,876
Rimpfischhorn 13,790 Pointe d’Orny 10,742
Strahlhorn 13,751 Dent du Midi 10,696
Dent d’Hérens 13,715 Mont Favre 10,693
Zermatt Breithorn 13,685 Sasseneire 10,693
Aiguille Verte 13,541 Grand Golliaz 10,630
Ober Gabelhorn 13,364 Tour Sallières 10,588
Aiguille de Bionnassay 13,341 Pizzo Bianco 10,552
Allalinhorn 13,236 Latelhorn 10,525
Weissmies 13,226 Schwarzhorn (Augstbord) 10,512
Aiguille du Géant 13,170 Gornergrat 10,289
Laquinhorn 13,140 Pointe de Léchaud 10,260
Rossbodenhorn 13,128 Buet 10,201
Grand Cornier 13,022 Mont Ruan 10,073
Aiguille de Trélatête 12,832 Mont Néri 10,073
Aiguille d’Argentière 12,819 Bella Tola  9,935
Ruinette 12,727 Pointe de Tanneverge  9,784
Aiguille de Triolet 12,717 Belvédère (Aigs. Rouges)  9,731
Mont Blanc de Seilon 12,700 Tagliaferro  9,725
Aiguille du Midi 12,609 Riffelhorn  9,617
Tour Noir 12,586 Pointe Percée du Reposoir  9,029
Aiguille des Glaciers 12,579 Crammont  8,980
Mont Dolent 12,543 Pointe des Fours  8,921
Aiguille du Chardonnet 12,540 Pointe du Colloney  8,832
Cima di Jazzi 12,527 Catogne  8,527
Balfrin 12,474 Monte Bò  8,386
Pigne d’Arolla 12,471 Mont Joly  8,291
Mont Vélan 12,353 Brévent  8,284
Aiguille du Dru 12,320 Pointe de Salles  8,183
Tête Blanche 12,304 Aiguille de Varens  8,163
L’Evêque 12,264 Mont Chétif  7,687
Mont Pleureur 12,159 Môle  6,132
Dôme de Miage 12,100 Salève (highest point)  4,528
Lo Besso 12,058

Chief Passes of the Pennine Alps.

Sesiajoch (Zermatt to Alagna), snow 14,515
Col de la Brenva (Courmayeur to Chamonix), snow 14,217
Domjoch (Randa to Saas), snow 14,062
Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033
Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651
Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474
Adler Pass (same to same), snow 12,461
Moming Pass (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 12,287
Schwarzthor (Zermatt to Ayas), snow 12,274
Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow 12,110
Ried Pass (St Niklaus to Saas), snow 11,800
New Weissthor (Zermatt to Macugnaga), snow 11,746
Allalin Pass (Zermatt to Saas), snow 11,713
Col de Valpelline (Zermatt to Aosta), snow 11,687
Biesjoch (Randa to Turtmann), snow 11,644
Triftjoch (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 11,615
Col d’Argentière (Chamonix to Orsières), snow 11,536
Col du Sonadon (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow  11,447
Col de Talèfre (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow 11,430
Col d’Hérens (Zermatt to Evolena), snow 11,418
Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 11,398
Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow 11,241
Col de Bertol (Arolla to the Col d’Hérens), snow 11,200
Col de Miage (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow 11,077
Col du Geant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow 11,060
Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d’Hérémence), snow 10,962
Col du Chardonnet (Chamonix to Orsierès), snow 10,909
Col de St Théodule (Zermatt to Châtillon), snow 10,899
Col du Tour (Chamonix to Orsières), snow 10,762
Fenetre de Saleinaz (Saleinaz Glacier to Trient Glacier), snow 10,709
Col de Tracuit (Zinal to Turtmann), snow 10,670
Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow 10,657
Col d’Oren (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow 10,637
Col de Seilon (Val de Bagnes to the Val d’Hérémence), snow 10,499
Col du Crêt (Val de Bagnes to the Val d’Hérémence), snow 10,329
Col de Valcóurnera (Val Tournanche to the Valpelline), snow 10,325
Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow 10,270
Col de Valsorey (Bourg St Pierre to Aosta), snow 10,214
Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 10,119
Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path  9,777
Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path  9,593
Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path  9,492
Col de Crête Sèche (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow  9,475
Col de Breuil (Bourg St Maurice to La Thuille), snow  9,446
Col d’Olen (Alagna to Gressoney), bridle path  9,420
Monte Moro (Saas to Macugnaga), partly bridle path  9,390
Pas de Chèvres (Arolla to the Val d’Hérémence), foot path  9,354
Antrona Pass (Saas to Antrona), partly bridle path  9,331
Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path  9,269
Col de Vessona (Valpelline to the St Barthelemy Glen), foot path  9,167
Col de Fenêtre (Val de Bagnes to Aosta), bridle path  9,141
Z’Meiden Pass (Zinal to Turtmann), bridle path  9,095
Turlo Pass (Alagna to Macugnaga), foot path  8,977
Col de Fenêtre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret), bridle path  8,855
Bettafurka (Ayas to Gressoney), bridle path  8,780
Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow  8,498
Col Serena (Great St Bernard to Courmayeur), foot path  8,327
Col Ferret (Courmayeur to Orsières), carriage road in progress  8,311
Col de la Seigne (Chapieux to Courmayeur) bridle path  8,242
Col de Susanfe (Champéry to Salvan), foot path  8,202
Col du Bonhomme (Contamines to Chapieux), bridle path  8,147
Col de Valdobbia (Gressoney to the Val Sesia), bridle path  8,134
Great St Bernard (Martigny to Aosta), carriage road  8,111
Col de Sagerou (Sixt to Champéry), foot path  7,917
Col de Moud (Alagna to Rima and Varallo), bridle path  7,622
Col d’Anterne (Sixt to Servos), bridle path  7,425
Col d’Egua (Rima to the Val Anzasca), bridle path  7,336
Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path  7,221
Simplon Pass (Brieg to Domo d’Ossola), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath  6,592
Col de Chécouri (Courmayeur to the Lac de Combal),bridle path  6,431
Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path  5,971
Col de Voza (Chamonix to Contamines), bridle path  5,496
Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path  5,105
Col de la Forclaz (Trient Valley to Martigny), carriage road  4,987

II. Central Alps

6. Bernese Oberland (from the Lake of Geneva to the Furka, the Reuss Valley and the Lake of Lucerne). This general name seems best to describe the range in question, though, of course, portions of it are in Cantons other than that of Berne, viz. Vaud, Fribourg, the Valais, Lucerne, Uri and Unterwalden.

Chief Peaks of the Bernese Oberland.
Finsteraarhorn 14,026  Mettenberg 10,194
Aletschhorn 13,721  Löffelhorn 10,165
Jungfrau 13,669  Grand Muveran 10,043
Mönch 13,468  Gross Wendenstock  9,987
Gross Schreckhorn 13,386  Sparrhorn  9,928
Gross Fiescherhorn 13,285  Torrenthorn  9,853
Eiger 13,042  Grande Dent de Morcles  9,777
Bietschhorn 12,970  Schilthorn  9,754
Gross Wannehorn 12,812  Eggishorn  9,626
Gross Nesthorn 12,533  Uri Rothstock  9,620
Lauterbrunnen Breithorn 12,399  Schwarzhorn(Grindelwald)   9,613
Balmhorn 12,176  Gross Siedelhorn  9,452
Wetterhorn (Mittelhorn) 12,166  Albristhorn  9,069
Wetterhorn (Hasli Jungfrau)  12,149  Röthihorn  9,052
Wetterhorn (Rosenhorn) 12,110  Faulhorn  8,803
Blümlisalphorn 12,044  Gummfluh  8,074
Gross Doldenhorn 11,966  Sulegg  7,914
Atels 11,930  Vanil Noir  7,858
Dammastock 11,920  Niesen  7,763
Galenstock 11,802  Brienzer Rothhorn  7,714
Sustenhorn 11,523  Tour d’Ai  7,658
Gspaltenhorn 11,293  Hohgant  7,225
Fleckistock 11,214  Stockhorn  7,192
Gross Huhnerstock 10,985  Kaiseregg  7,182
Ewigschneehorn 10,929  Pilatus (Tomlishorn)  6,995
Ritzlihorn 10,768  Chamossaire  6,943
Wildhorn 10,709  Gemmenalphorn  6,772
Wildstrubel 10,673  Rochers de Nave  5,710
Diablerets 10,650  Moléson  6,582
Titlis 10,627  Dent de Jaman  6,165
Gross Spannort 10,516  Napf  4,629
Wellhorn 10,486
Chief Passes of the Bernese Oberland.
Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow 12,140
Mönchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow 11,680
Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow 11,385
Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow 10,995
Grünhornlücke (Great Aletsch Glacier to the Fiescher Glacier), snow   10,844
Oberaarjoch (Grimsel to the Eggishorn), snow 10,607
Gauli Pass (Grimsel to Meiringen), snow 10,519
Petersgrat (Lauterbrunnen to the Lötschenthal), snow 10,516
Lötschenlücke (Lötschenthal to the Eggishorn), snow 10,512
Lauteraarsattel (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow 10,355
Beichgrat (Lötschenthal to the Bel Alp), snow 10,289
Lämmernjoch (Lenk to the Gemmi), snow 10,276
Triftlimmi (Rhone Glacier to the Gadmen Valley), snow 10,200
Sustenlimmi (Stein Alp to Goeschenen), snow 10,181
Gamchilücke (Kien Valley to Lauterbrunnen), snow  9,295
Tschiugel Pass (Lauterbrunnen to Kandersteg), snow  9,265
Hohthurli Pass (Kandersteg to the Kien Valley), foot path  8,882
Lötschen Pass (Kandersteg to the Lötschenthal), snow  8,842
Sefinenfurka (Lauierbrunnen to the Kien Valley), foot path  8,583
Wendenjoch (Engelberg to the Gadmen Valley), snow  8,544
Furtwangsattel (Guttannen to the Gadmen Valley), foot path  8,393
Furka Pass (Rhone Glacier to Andermatt), carriage road  7,992
Rawil Pass (Sion to Lenk), bridle path  7,924
Gemmi Pass (Randersteg to Leukerbad), bridle path  7,641
Surenen Pass (Engelberg to Altdorf), foot path  7,563
Susten Pass (Meiringen to Wassen), partly carriage road  7,422
Sanetsch Pass (Sion to Saanen), bridle path  7,331
Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg), bridle path  7,267
Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road  7,100
Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over  6,772
Col de Cheville (Sion to Bex), bridle path  6,723
Grosse Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Meiringen), bridle path  6,454
Col de Jaman (Montreux to Montbovon), mule path over,
railway tunnel beneath
Brünig Pass (Meiringen to Lucerne), railway over  3,396

7. Lepontine Alps (from the Simplon to the Splügen and south of the Furka and Oberalp Passes). The eastern portion of this range, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splügen, is sometimes named the Adula Alps.

Chief Peaks of the Lepontine Alps.
Monte Leone 11,684  Piz Blas 9,918
Rheinwaldhorn 11,149  Monte Giove 9,876
Guferhorn 11,132  Pizzo Centrale 9,853
Blindenhorn 11,103  Pizzas d’Annarosa 9,850
Basodino 10,749  Piz Beverin 9,843
Tambohorn 10,749  Weisshorn (Splügen)  9,817
Helsenhorn 10,742  Pizzo Lucendro 9,708
Wasenhorn 10,680  Piz Tomül 9,676
Ofenhorn 10,637  Piz Cavel 9,659
Cherbadung 10,542  Barenhorn 9,620
Piz Medel 10,509  Six Madun (Badus) 9,619
Scopi 10,499  Piz Muraun 9,512
Pizzo Rotondo 10,489  Zervreilerhorn 9,508
Pizzo dei Piani 10,361  Monte Cistella 9,353
Piz Terri 10,338  Piz Lukmanier 9,115
Piz Aul 10,250  Monte Prosa 8,983
Pizzo di Pesciora 10,247  Pizzo Columbè 8,363
Wyttenwasserstock 10,119  Monte Camoghè 7,303
Campo Tencia 10,089  Piz Mundaun 6,775
Leckihorn 10,069  Monte Generoso 5,591
Bruschghorn 10,020  Monte San Salvatore 3,004
Alperschellihorn  9,991
Chief Passes of the Lepontine Alps.
Zapport Pass (Hinterrhein to Malvaglia and Biasca), snow 10,105
Güferlücke (Kanal Glen to the Lenta Glen), snow  9,777
Lentalücke (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), snow  9,692
Hohsand Pass (Binn to Tosa Falls), snow  9,603
Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow  9,554
Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow  9,449
Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow  9,331
Scaradra Pass (Vals Platz to Olivone), foot path  9,088
Satteltelücke (Vals Platz to Vrin), foot path  9,082
Ritter Pass (Binn to Veglia Alp), snow  8,832
Cavanna Pass (Realp to the Val Bedretto), snow  8,566
Scatta Minoja (Devero to the Val Formazza), bridle path  8,521
Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path  8,340
Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path  8,225
Safierberg (Splügen to Safien Platz), bridle path  8,170
Geisspfad Pass (Binn to Devero), foot path  8,120
Gries Pass (Ulrichen to Tosa Falls), bridle path  8,098
Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path  8,015
Nufenen Pass (Ulrichen to Airolo), bridle path  8,006
Diesrut Pass (Vrin fo the Somvix Oolen), bad bridle path  7,953
Albrun Pass (Binn to Devero and Baceno), bridle path  7,907
Greina Pass (Olivone to the Somvix Glen), bridle path  7,743
San Giacomo Pass (Airolo to Tosa Falls), bridle path  7,573
Passo di Buffalora (Val Mesocco to the Val Calanca), foot path    7,431
Passo dell’ Uomo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), bridle path  7,258
Splügen Pass (Thusis to Chiavenna), carriage road  6,946
St Gotthard Pass (Andermatt to Airolo), carriage road over,
railway tunnel beneath
San Bernardino Pass (Thusis to Bellinzona), carriage road  6,769
Lukmanier Pass (Disentis to Olivone), carriage road  6,289

8. The Range of the Tödi (from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass).

Chief Peaks of the Range of the Tödi.
Tödi 11,887  Piz Segnes 10,178
Bifertenstock 11,241  Piz Giuf 10,165
Piz Urlaun 11,060  Crispalt 10,105
Oberalpstock 10,926  Bristenstock 10,086
Gross Scheerhorn 10,814  Selbsanft  9,938
Claridenstock 10,729  Vorab  9,925
Dussistock 10,703  Tschingelhörner (Elm)  9,351
Ringelspitz 10,667  Piz Sol (Grauehörner)  9,348
Brigelserhörner (highest) 10,663  Calanda  9,213
Grosse Windgalle 10,473  Kärpfstock  9,177
Hausstock 10,342  Mageren  8,294
Gross Ruchen 10,289  Mürtschenstock  8,012
Chief Passes of the Range of the Tödi.
Clariden Pass (Amsteg to Linththal), snow 9,741
Planura Pass (same to same), snow 9,646
Kammlilücke or Scheerjoch (Maderanerthal to Unterschächen), snow   9,344
Sardona Pass (Flims to Ragaz), snow 9,318
Sand Alp Pass (Disentis to Linththal), snow 9,121
Brunni Pass (Disentis to Amsteg), snow 8,977
Segnes Pass (Elm to Flims), foot path 8,613
Kisten Pass (Linththal to Ilanz), bad bridle path 8,203
Panixer Pass (Elm to Ilanz), bad bridle path 7,897
Krüzli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path 7,710
Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path 7,290
Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road 6,719
Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road 6,404

9. The Alps of North-Eastern Switzerland (north of the Klausen Pass).

Chief Peaks of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps.
Glärnisch (highest) 9,580 Gross Mythen 6,240
Böser Faulen 9,200 Rigikulm 5,906
Säntis 8,216 Hoher Kasten 5,899
Altmann 7,999 Rossberg 5,194
Faulfirst 7,925 Zugerberg (Hochwacht) 3,255
Alvier 7,753 Albis Hochwacht 2,887
Kurfürsten (highest) 7,576 Uetliberg 2,864
Speer 6,411
Chief Passes of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps.
Ruosalperkulm (Schächen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path 7,126
Karren Alp Pass (Muota Valley to Linththal), foot path 6,877
Kinzigkulm Pass (Schächen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path   6,811
Saasberg Pass (Einsiedeln to Glarus), foot path 6,227
Kamor Pass (Appenzell to Rüti), bridle path 5,512
Saxerlücke (Appenzell to Sax), foot path 5,417
Schwein Alp Pass (Wäggithal to the Klön Glen), bridle path 5,158
Pragel Pass (Muotathal to Glarus), carriage road in progress 5,099
Hacken Pass (Schwyz to Einsiedeln), foot path 4,649
Holzegg Pass (same to same), bridle path 4,616
Ibergeregg Pass (Schwyz to Iberg and Einsiedeln), carriage road 4,613
Kräzeren Pass (Nesslau to Urnasch), bridle path 3,993

10. Bernina Alps (from the Maloja to the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio, south and east of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine and north of the Valtellina).

Chief Peaks of the Bernina Alps.
Piz Bernina 13,304 Piz Languard 10,716
Piz Zupo 13,131 Piz Sesvenna 10,568
Monte di Scerscen 13,116 Piz Pisoc 10,427
Piz Roseg 12,934 Piz Murtaröl 10,424
Piz Palü 12,835 Piz Quaiervals 10,358
Crast’ Agüzza 12,704 Pizzo della Margna 10,355
Piz Morteratsch 12,317 Cima di Redascó 10,299
Monte della Disgrazia 12,067 Piz Lischanna 10,204
Pizzo di Verona 11,359 Pizzo di Sena 10,099
Cima di Piazzi 11,283 Piz Casana 10,079
Cima di Castello 11,155 Monte Foscagno 10,010
Cima Viola 11,103 Pizzo del Teo 10,007
Pizzo Cengalo 11,070 Pizzo del Ferro 10,007
Cima di Rosso 11,060 Piz Umbrail  9,955
Pizzo Scalino 10,903 Zwei Schwestern  9,784
Pizzo Badile 10,863 Monte Braulio  9,777
Corno di Campo 10,844 Monte Spluga  9,321
Pizzo di Dosdè 10,762 Monte Massuccio  9,239
Cima di Saoseo 10,752 Mont la Schera  8,494
Chief Passes of the Bernina Alps.
Fuorcla Bellavista (Pontresina to Chiesa, in Val Malenco), snow 12,087
Fuorcla Crast’ Agüzza (same to same), snow 11,805
Fuorcla Tschierva (same to same), snow 11,572
Fuorela Sella (same to same), snow 10,840
Passo di Bondo (Bondo to the Baths of Masino), snow 10,227
Passo di Castello (Maloja to Morbegno), snow 10,171
Passo Tremoggia (Sils to Chiesa), snow  9,912
Passo di Mello Chiareggio to Val Masino), snow  9,813
Diavolezza Pass (Bernina road to the Morteratsch Glen), snow  9,767
Passo di Dosdè (Val Grosina to Val Viola Bormina), foot path  9,351
Passo di Sacco (Bernina road to Grosio), foot path  9,026
Passo di Zocca (Vicosoprano to Val Masino), snow  9,000
Casana pass (Scants to Livigno), bridle path  8,832
Muretto pass (Maloja to Chiesa), partly snow  8,389
Umbrail Pass or Wörmserjoch (Münster Valley to the Stelvio road), carriage road    8,242
Passo di Val Viola (Bernina road to Bormio), bridle path  7,976
Giufplan Pass (Ofen road to Fraële), bridle path  7,723
Bernina Pass (Pontresina to Tirano), carriage road  7,645
Forcola di Livigno (Bernina Pass to Livigno), small carriage road  7,638
Cruschetta Pass (Schuls by Scarl to Taufers), bridle path  7,599
Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path  7,592
Sursass or Schlinig Pass (Remüs to Mals) foot path  7,540
Foscagno Pass (Bormio to Trepalle), bridle path  7,517
Alpisella Lass (Uivigno to Fraule), bridle path  7,497
Scarl Pass (Scarl to Santa Maria Münster), carriage road  7,386
Dössradond Pass (Santa Maria Münster to Fraële), bridle path  7,349
Passo Dheira (Livigno to Trepalle) bridle path  7,248
Ofen Pass (Zernez to Mals), carriage road  7,071
Fraële Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path  6,398
Scale di Fraële (Bormio to Fraële), bridle path  6,372
Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road  5,935

11. Albula Range (from the Splügen Pass to the Flüela Pass. north and west of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine).

Chief Peaks of the Albula Range.
Piz Kesch 11,228  Pizzo Stella 10,375
Piz dellas Calderas 11,132  Flüela Schwarzhorn 10,355
Piz Platta 11,109  Pizzo della Duana 10,279
Piz Julier 11,106  Pizzo Gallegione 10,201
Piz d’Err 11,093  Gletscherhorn 10,191
Piz d’Aela 10,959  Cima di Lago 10,112
Cima da Flex 10,785  Hoch Ducan 10,060
Piz Uertsch 10,739  Piz Grisch 10,000
Piz Forbisch 10,689  Averser Weissberg  9,987
Piz Ot 10,667  Surettahorn  9,971
Gross Piz Vadret 10,584  Arosa Rothhorn  9,794
Piz Timun or Emet 10,502  Piz Curver  9,761
Tinzenhorn 10,430  Pizzo Lunghino  9,121
Piz Michel 10,378  Stätzerhorn  8,450
Chief Passes of the Albula Range.
Fuorcla Calderas (Molins to Bevers), snow 10,270
Fuorcla d’Eschia (Madulein to Bergün), snow  9,869
Passo della Duana (Avers Valley to the Val Bregaglia), snow  9,187
Sertig Pass (Davos to Scanfs), foot path  9,062
Forcella di Prassignola (Avers Valley to Soglio), old paved cattle path  8,924
Tinzenthor (Bergün to Savognino), foot path  8,918
Forcella di Lago or Madris Pass (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path  8,793
Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path  8,770
Ducan Pass (Davos to Bergün), foot path  8,763
Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path  8,724
Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path  8,645
Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path  8,593
Suvretta Pass (St Moritz to Bevers), bridle path  8,590
Fuorcla d’Alp Fontauna (Bergün to Scanfs), foot path  8,580
Stallerberg (Avers Valley to Bivio-Stalla), foot path  8,478
Grialetsch Pass (Davos to Süs), foot path  8,353
Flüela Pass (Davos to Süs), carriage road  7,838
Strela Pass (Davos to Langwies), bridle path  7,799
Albula Pass (Bergün to Ponte), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath    7,595
Septimer Pass (Bivio-Stalla to Casaccia), bridle path  7,582
Julier Pass (Thusis to Silvaplana), carriage road  7,504
Passo di Madesimo or d’Emet (Avers Valley to Madesimo), foot path  7,481

12. Silvretta and Rhätikon Ranges (from the Fuela Pass to the Reschen Scheideck and the Arlberg Pass).

Chief Peaks of the Silvretta and Rhätikon Ranges.
Piz Linard 11,201  Vesulspitze 10,145
Fluchthorn 11,165  Flüela Weisshorn 10,132
Gross Piz Buin 10,880  Piz Minschun 10,079
Verstanklahorn 10,831  Patteriol 10,037
Muttler 10,821  Piz Faschalba 10,010
Piz Fliana 10,775  Hexenkopf  9,968
Stammerspitze 10,689  Gemsbleiskopf  9,899
Silvrettahorn 10,657  Pischahorn  9,784
Augstenberg 10,611  Scesaplana  9,741
Plattenhorn 10,568  Rothbleiskopf  9,640
Dreiländerspitze 10,539  Hohes Rad  9,554
Piz Tasna 10,443  Schiltfluh  9,482
Kuchenspitze 10,401  Plattenpspitze  9,449
Hoher Riffler 10,368  Madrishorn  9,285
Piz Mondin 10,325  Drusenfluh  9,282
Küchelspitze 10,315  Sulzfluh  9,252
Gross Seehorn 10,247  Zimbaspitze  8,678
Vesilspitze 10,220  Naafkopf  8,445
Gross Litzner 10,207  Falknis  8,419
Chief Passes of the Silvretta and Rhätikon Ranges.
Jamjoch (Guarda to Galtür), snow 10,112
Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), snow 10,033
Buinlücke (Guarda to Patenen), snow 10,020
Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow  9,886
Zahnlücke (Jam Glen to the Fimber Glen), snow  9,712
Verstanklathor (Klosters to Lavin), snow  9,682
Fuorcla d’Urezzas (Ardez to Galtür), snow  9,564
Fuorcla Tasna (Ardez to Ischgl), snow  9,374
Fuorcla Maisas (Remüs to the Samnaun Glen), snow  9,357
Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow  9,193
Futschöl Pass (Ardez to Galtür), foot path  9,098
Fuorcla Zadrell or Vernela Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow  9,033
Cuolm d’Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path  8,852
Schafbücheljoch (Mathon to St Anton), foot path  8,685
Fimber Pass (Remüs to Ischgl), bridle path  8,570
Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path  8,557
Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot path  8,540
Zebles Pass (Ischgl to the Samnaun Glen), bridle path  8,350
Garnerajoch (Klosters to Gaschurn), foot path  8,153
Fless Pass (Klosters to Süs), foot path  8,045
St Antönien or Gargellenjoch (St Antönien to St Gallenkirch), foot path  7,792
Drusenthor (Schiers to Schruns), foot path  7,710
Verrajöchl (Lünersee to the Schweizerthor), foot path  7,648
Ofen Pass (Schweizerthor to Schruns), foot path  7,523
Cavelljoch (Bludenz and the Lünersee to Seewis), foot path  7,343
Gruben Pass (St Antönien to Schruns), foot path  7,333
Schlappinerjoch (Klosters to St Gallenkirch), bridle path  7,218
Schweizerthor (Schiers to Schruns), foot path  7 057
Bielerhöhe (Patenen to Galtür), bridle path  6,631
Zeinisjoch (Patenen to Galtür), bridle path  6,076
Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath  5,912

III. Eastern Alps

13. The Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg (north of the Arlberg Pass, Innsbruck, the Pinzgau, and the Enns valley).

Chief Peaks of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg.
Parseierspitze 9,968  Watzmann 8,901
Dachstein 9,830 Rothewandspitze 8,878
Zugspitze 9,738 Gross Krottenkopf(Allgäu) 8,718
Hochkönig 9,639 Selbhorn 8,711
Valluga 9,223 Hohes Licht 8,701
Rockspitze 9,059 Madelegabel 8,681
EHohe Griesspitze 9,052 Hochvogel 8,511
Stanskogel 9,052 Elmauer Haltsspitze (Kaisergebirge)  7,691
Birkkarspitze (Karwendel)  9,042
Chief Passes of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg.
Gentschel Pass (Oberstdorf to Schrocken), bridle path 6,480
Schrofen Pass (Oberstdorf to Warth), foot path 5,538
Gerlos Pass (Zell to Mittersill), bridle path 4,876
Pass Thurn (Kitzbühel to Mittersill), carriage road 4,183
Fern Pass (Reutte to Nassereit), carriage road 4,026
Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road 3,874
Hirschbühel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road 3,858
Hochfilzen Pass (Saalfelden to Kitzbühel), railway over 3,173
Pyhrn Pass (Linz to Liezen), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 3,100
Wagreinstattel (Radstadt to St Johann in Pongau), carriage road 2,743

14. Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstädter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley). This division takes in the Zillerthal and Tuern Ranges.

Chief Peaks of the Central Tirol Alps.
Gross Glockner 12,461  Gross Geiger 11,041
Gross Venediger 12,008 Ruthnerhorn (Rieserferner) 11,024
Gross Wiesbachhorn 11,713 Hochalmspitze 11,008
Hochfeiler (Zillerthal) 11,559 Reichenspitze (Z) 10,844
Dreiherrenspitze 11,500 Gross Rotherknopf (Schober) 10,814
Mosele (Z) 11,438 Gross Mörchner (Z) 10,785
Olperer (Z) 11,418 Hochnarr (Goldberg) 10,689
Johannisberg 11,375 Ankogel 10,673
Hochgall (Rieserferner) 11,287 Hochschober 10,663
Thurnerkamp (Z) 11,228 Kitzsteinhorn 10,512
Gross Löffler (Z) 11,096 Sonnblick 10,196
Fusstein (Z) 11,090 Zsigmondyspitze 10,122
Schwarzenstein (Z) 11,057 Reckner (Tuxergebirge)  9,485
Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.
Mitterbachjoch (Breitlahner to Taufers), snow (Z) 10,270
Trippachsattel (Floiten Valley to Taufers), snow (Z) 10,020
Riffelthor (Kaprun to Heiligenblut), snow 10,010
Bockkarscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow  9,994
Sonnblickscharte (Rauris to Heiligenblut), snow  9,774
Alpeinerscharte (Breitlahner to St Jodok am Brenner), foot path (Z)  9,712
Vorder Umbalthörl (Prägraten to Kasern), snow  9,607
Ober Sulzbachthörl (Prägraten to Wald), snow  9,600
Keilbachjoch (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z)  9,410
Unter Sulzbachthörl (Wald to Gschlöss), snow  9,400
Schwarzkopfscharte (Bramberg to Gschlöss), snow  9,351
Prägraterthörl (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path  9,338
Glödisthörl (Lienz to Kals), snow  9,292
Antholzerscharte (Rein Valley to the Antholz Valley), snow  9,252
Krimmlerthörl (Krimml Glen to the Obersulzbach Glen) snow  9,233
Goldzechscharte (Heiligenblut to Rauris), snow  9,220
Kalserthörl (Kals to Liens), snow  9,197
Ober Tramerscharte (Rauris to Döllach), snow  9,193
Kleine Elendscharte (Gastein to Gmünd), snow  8,987
Kleine Zirknitzscharte (Döllach to Fragant or Rauris), snow  8,921
Dössener or Maunitzerscharte (Mallnitz to Gmund), snow  8,783
Grosse Elendscharte (Mallnitz to the Upper Malta Glen), snow  8,770
Unter Pfandlscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow  8,744
Heiliggeistjöchl (Mayrhofen to Kasern), foot path (Z)  8,721
Bergerthörl (Kals to Heiligenblut), foot path  8,695
Kaprunerthvrl (upper Kaprun Glen to the upper Stubach Glen), snow  8,645
Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path  8,642
Virgner or Defereggerthörl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and
  Prägraten), foot path
Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path   8,573
Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path  8,442
Hörndljöchl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z)  8,383
Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path  8,334
Kalser Tauern (Kals to Uttendorf), foot path  8,242
Hohe or Korn Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path over,
  railway tunnel beneath
Niedere or Mallnitzer Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path  7,920
Fuscherthörl (Ferleiten to the Seidlwinkel Glen), foot path  7,891
Lappacherjoch (Lappach to the Ahrn Valley), foot path (Z)  7,763
Tuxerjoch or Schmirnjoch (Mayrhofen to St Jodok am Brenner),
  foot path (Z)
Klammljoch (Taufers to the Defereggen Valley), bridle path  7,517
Arlscharte (St Johann in Pongau to Gmund), foot path  7,386
Pfitscherjoch (Mayrhofen to Sterzing), foot path (Z)  7,376
Kals Matreierthörl (Kals to Windisch Matrei), bridle path  7,238
Die Stanz (Gastein to Rauris), foot path  6,900
Stallersattel (Defereggen Glen to the Antholz Glen), bridle path (R)  6,742
Radstädter Tauern (Radstadt to Mautendorf), carriage road  5,702

15. Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Banges (from the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio to the Brenner Pass, south of the Inn Valley, and north of the Tonale Pass).

Chief Peaks of the Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges.
Ortler 12,802 Zuckerhütl (Stubai) 11,520
Königsspitze 12,655  Schalfkogel 11,516
Monte Cevedale 12,382 Schrankogel 11,483
Wildspitze (Oetzthal) 12,382 Hochwildspitze 11,418
Weisskugel 12,291 Sonklarspitze 11,405
Monte Zebru 12,254 uckettspitze 11,346
Palon della Mare 12,156 Wilder Freiger 11,241
Punta San Matteo 12,113 Veneziaspitze 11,103
Thurwieserspitze 11,946 Tschengelser Hochwand 11,083
Hintere Schwarze 11,920 Monte Confinale 11,057
Similaun 11,821 Glockthurm 11,011
Pizzo Tresero 11,818 Fernerkogel 10,827
Gross Ramolkogel 11,651 Monte Sobretta 10,814
Vertainspitze 11,618 Habicht 10,758
Hochvernagtspitze 11,585 Pflerscher Tribulaun 10,178
Chief Passes of the Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges.
Hochjoch (Sulden to the Zebru Glen), snow 11,602
Vioz Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow 10,949
Sonklarscharte (Sölden to Sterzing), snow 10,916
Königsjoch (Sulden to Santa Caterina), snow 10,811
Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732
Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow 10,640
Ramoljoch (Vent to Gurgl), snow 10,479
Langtaufererjoch (Vent to the Reschen Scheideck Pass), snow  10,391
Bildstöckljoch (Solden to Ranalt), snow 10,296
Gurgler Eisjoch (Gurgl to the Pfossen Glen), snow 10,292
Eissee Pass (Sulden to the Martell Glen), snow 10,279
Langthalerjoch (Gurgl to Pfelders), snow 10,033
Passo del Zebru (Santa Caterina to the Zebru Glen), snow  9,925
Sällentjoch (Martell Glen to Rabbi), snow  9,913
Nederjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow  9,899
Sforzellina Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow  9,859
Pitzthalerjöchl (Mittelberg to Sölden), snow  9,826
Eisjöchl am Bild (Pfelders to the Pfossen Glen), snow  9,541
Venter Hochjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow  9,465
Tabarettascharte (Sulden to Trafoi), foot path  9,459
Stelvio Pass (Trafoi to Bormio), carriage road  9,055
Gavia Pass (Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno), foot path  8,651
Timmeljoch or Timblerjoch (Sölden to the Passeierthal and
Meran), bridle path
Jaufen Pass (Sterzing to Meran), bridle path  6,870
Reschen Scheideck Pass (Landeck to Meran), carriage road  4,902
Brenner Pass (Innsbruck to Verona), railway over  4,495

16. Lombard Alps (from the Lake of Como to the Adige Valley, south of the Valtellina and the Aprica and Tonale Passes. This division includes the Adamello, Presanella, Brenta and Bergamasque ranges.

Chief Peaks of the Lombard Alps.
Presanella 11,694  Pizzo del Diavolo  9,564
Adamello 11,661 Rè di Castello  9,482
Carè Alto 11,369 Recastello  9,475
Dosson di Genova 11,254 Monte Gleno  9,459
Crozzon di Lares 11,004 Monte Tornello  8,819
Corno di Baitone 10,929 Corno Stella  8,596
Busazza 10,922 Monte Legnone  8,563
Lobliia Alta 10,486 Pizzo dei Tre Signori  8,380
Cima Tosa (Brenta) 10,420 Pizzo di Presolana  8,239
Cima di Brenta 10,352 Grigna  7,907
Crozzon di Brenta 10,247 Monte Baldo  7,218
Pizzo di Coca (Bergamasque) 10,014 Monte Spinale  7,094
Pizzo di Scais  9,974 Monte Gazza  6,529
Pizzo di Redorta  9,964 Monte Resegone  6,155
Pietra Grande  9,630
Chief Passes of the Lombard Alps.
Passo di Lares (Lares Glacier to the Lobbia Glacier), snow 10,483
Passo di Cercen (gal di Genova to Fucine), snow  9,984
Passo della Lobbia Alta (Lobbia Glacier to the Mandron (Glacier), snow  9,961
Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow  9,879
Pisgana Pass (Val di Genova to Ponte di Legno), snow  9,626
Bocca di Tuckett (Campiglio to Molveno), snow  8,714
Passo di Val Morta or del Diavolo (Val Seriana to Sondrio), foot path  8,534
Bocca di Brenta (Pinzolo or Campiglio to Molveno), snow  8,376
Passo del Grostè (Campiglio to Cles), foot path  8,006
Passo di Veniua (kal Brembana to Sondrio), foot path  7,983
Passo del Salto (Val Seriana to Sondrio), foot path  7,937
Passo del Venerocolo (Val di Scalve to the Aprica road), bridle path  7,595
Passo della Forcellina or di Campo (Cedegolo to the Val di Fomo), foot path  7,507
Passo di Idordona (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path  6,824
Passo di San Marco (Bergamo to Morbegno), bridle path  6,513
Croce Domini Pass (Breno to Bagolino in Val Caffaro), bridle path  6,217
Tonale Tass (Trent to Edolo), carriage road  6,181
Passo di Zovetto (Val di Scalve to Edolo), bridle path  5,968
Colle Maniva (Val Trompia to Bagolino), bridle path  5,476
Campo or Ginevriė Pass (Dimaro by Campiglio to Pinzolo), carriage road  5,407
Ciampenjoch (Cles to Meran), foot path  5,051
Mendel Pass (Botzen to Cles), railway on the Eslope  4,462
Passo di Castione or Presolana Pass (Clusone to the Val di
Scalve), carriage road
Aprica Pass (Edolo to Tirano), carriage road  3,875

17. The Dolomites of South Tirol (from the Brenner Pass to the Monte Croce Pass, and south of the Pusterthal).

Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol.
Marmolata 10,972  Pala di San Martino 9,831
Antelao 10,706 Rosengartenspitze 9,781
Tofana di Mezzo 10,633 Marmarole 9,715
Sorapiss 10,594 Cima di Fradusta 9,649
Monte Civetta 10,564 Fermedathurm 9,407
Vernel 10,319 Cima d’Asta 9,344
Monte Cristallo 10,496 Cima di Canali 9,338
Cima di Vezzana 10,470 Croda Grande 9,315
Cimon della Pala 10,453 Vajoletthurm (highest) 9,256
Langkofel 10,427 Sass Maor 9,239
Pelmo 10,397 Cima di Ball 9,131
Dreischusterspitze 10,375 Cima della Madonna (Sass Maor)  9,026
Boëspitze 10,342 Rosetta 8,993
Croda Rossa (Hoher Caisl) 10,329 Croda da Lago 8,911
Piz Popena 10,312 Central Grasleitenspitze 8,875
Elferkofel 10,220 Schlern 8,406
Grohmannspitze 10,207 Sasso di Mur 8,380
Zwölferkofel 10,142 Cima delle Dodici 7,671
Sass Rigais (Geislerspitzen)  9,932 Monte Pavione 7,664
Drei Zinnen  9,853 Cima di Posta 7,333
Kesselkogel (Rosengarten)  9,846 Monte Pasubio 7,323
Fünffingerspitze  9,833
Chief Passes of the Dolomites of South Tirol.
Passo d’ Ombretta (Campitello to Caprile), foot path 8,983
Langhofeljoch (Gröden Valley to Campirello), foot path 8,803
Tschagerjoch (Karersee to the Vajolet Glen), foot path 8,675
Crasleiten Pass (Vaiolet Glen to thegrasleiten Glen), foot path 8,521
Passo di Pravitale (Rosetta Plateau to the Pravitale Glen), foot path 8,465
Passo delle Comelle (same to Cencenighe), foot path 8,462
Passo della Rosetta (San Martino di Castrozza to the great
limestone Rosetta plateau), foot path 8,442
Vajolet Pass (Tiers to the Vajolet Glen), foot path 8,363
Passo di Canali (Primiero to Agordo), foot path 8,193
Tiersalpljöchl (Campitello to Tiers), foot path 8,055
Passo di Ball (San Martino di Castrozza to the Pravitale Glen), footpath 8,038
Forcella di Giralba (Sexte11 to Auronzo), foot path 7,992
Col dei Bos (Falzarego Glen to the Travernanzes Glen), foot path 7,589
Forcella Grande (San Vito to Auronzo), foot path 7,422
Pordoi Pass (Caprile to Campitello), carriage road 7,382
Sellajoch (Gröden Glen to Camphello), bridle path 7,277
Tre Sassi Pass (Cortina to St Cassian), foot path 7,215
Mahlknechtjoch (Upper Duron Glen to the Seiser Alp), foot path 7,113
Grödenerjoch (Gröden Glen to Colfuschg), bridle path 7,011
Falzarego Pass (Caprile to Cortina), small carriage road 6,946
Fedaja Pass (Campitello to Caprile), bridle path 6,713
Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667
Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and
Primiero), carriage road 6,509
Forcella Forada (Caprile to San Vito), bridle path 6,480
Passo di San Pellegrino (Moena to Cencenighe), small carriage, path 6,267
Forcella d’Alleghe (Alleghe to the Zoldo Glen), foot path 5,971
Tre Croci Pass (Cortina to Auronzo), carriage road 5,932
Karersee or Caressa Pass (Welschenofen to Vigo di Fassa), carriage road 5,715
Monte Croce Pass (Innichen and Sexten to the Piave Valley
and Belluno), carriage road
Ampezzo Pass (Toblach to Cortina and Belluno), carriage path 5,066
Cereda Pass (Primiero to Agordo), bridle path 4,501
Toblach Pass (Bruneck to Lienz), railway over 3,967

18. South-Eastern Alps (east of the Monte Croce Pass). This division includes three small groups, the Julic, Carnic and Karawankas Alps—each peak and pass being distinguished by one of the initial letters “J,” “C” or “K.”

Chief Peaks of the South-Eastern Alps.
Terglou or Triglav (J) 9,400  Monte Cridola (C) 8,468
Monte Coglians (C) 9,128 Grintovc (K) 8,429
Kellerwand (C) 9,105 Prestrelenik (J) 8,202
Jof del Montasio (J) 9,039 Monte Cavallo (C) 7,386
Cima dei Preti (C) 8,868 Krn (J) 7,369
Monte Paralba (C) 8,829 Stou (K) 7,346
Manhart (J) 8,786 Dobratsch (C) 7,120
Jalouc (J) 8,711 Velka Kappa (K) 5,059
Monte Canin (J) 8,471
Chief Passes of the South-Eastern Alps.
Oefnerjoch (Forno Avoltri to St Lorenzen in the Gail Valley), foot path (C) 7,550
Wolayer Pass (same to Mauthen), foot path (C) 6,306
Loibl Pass (Klagenfurt to Laibach), carriage road (K) 4,495
Plöcken Pass (Tolmezzo to Mauthen), bridle path (C) 4,462
Predil Pass (Villach by d’arvis and Flitsch to Gorz), carriage road (J) 3,183
Birnbaumerwald (Laibach to Gorz), carriage road (J) 2,897
Saifnitz or Pontebba Pass (Villach by Tarvis and Pontebba to Udine), railway  2,615

7. Political History and Modern State of the Inhabitants of the Alps.—We know practically nothing of the early dwellers in the Alps, save from the scanty accounts preserved to us by Roman and Greek historians and geographers. A few details have come down to us of the conquest of many of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, though not much more than their names. The successive emigrations and occupation of the Alpine region by divers Teutonic tribes from the 5th to the 6th centuries are, too, known to us only in outline, while to them, as to the Frankish kings and emperors, the Alps offered a route from one place to another rather than a permanent residence. It is not till the final break up of the Carolingian empire in the 10th and 11th centuries that it becomes possible to trace out the local history of different parts of the Alps.

In the case of the Western Alps (minus the bit from the chain of Mont Blanc to the Simplon, which followed the fortunes of the Valais), a prolonged struggle for the Alpine region took place between the feudal lords of Savoy, the Dauphiné and Provence. In 1349 the Dauphiné fell to France, while in 1388 the county of Nice passed from Provence to the house of Savoy, which too held Piedmont as well as other lands on the Italian side of the Alps. The struggle henceforth was limited to France and the house of Savoy, but little by little France succeeded in pushing back the house of Savoy across the Alps, thus forcing it to become a purely Italian power. One turning-point in the rivalry was the treaty of Utrecht (1713), by which France gave up to Savoy the districts (all forming part of the Dauphiné, and lying on the Italian slope of the Alps) of Exilles, Bardonnèche, Oulx, Fénestrelles, and Château Dauphin, while Savoy handed over to France the valley of Barcelonnette, situated on the western slope of the Alps and forming part of the county of Nice. The final act in the long-continued struggle took place in 1860, when France obtained by cession the rest of the county of Nice and also Savoy, thus remaining sole mistress on the western slope of the Alps.

In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively. The attraction of the south was too strong for both the Forest Cantons and the Grisons, so that both tried to secure, and actually did secure, various bits of the Milanese. The former, in the 15th century, won the Val Leventina (down which the St Gotthard train now thunders) as well as Bellinzona and the Val Blenio (though the Ossola Valley was held for a time only), while the latter added to the Val Bregaglia (which had been given to the bishop of Coire in 960 by the emperor Otto I.) the valleys of Mesocco and of Poschiavo. Further, in 1512, the Swiss Confederation as a whole won the valleys of Locarno with Lugano, which, combined with the 15th century conquests by the Forest Cantons, were formed in 1803 into the new Canton of Ticino or Tessin. On the other hand, the Grisons won in 1512 the Valtellina, with Bormio and Chiavenna, but in 1797 these regions were finally lost to it as well as to the Swiss Confederation, though the Grisons retained the valleys of Mesocco, Bregaglia and Poschiavo, while in 1762 it had bought the upper bit of the valley of Munster that lies on the southern slope of the Alps.

In the Eastern Alps the political history is almost monotonous, for it relates simply to the advance or retreat of the house of Habsburg, which still holds all but the whole of the northern portion (the exception is the small bit in the north-west that belongs to Bavaria) of that region. The Habsburgers, whose original home was in the lower valley of the Aar, where still stand the ruins of their ancestral castle, lost that district to the Swiss in 1415, as they had previously lost various other bits of what is now Switzerland. But they received a rich compensation in the Eastern Alps (not to speak of the imperial crown), for they there gathered in the harvest that numerous minor dynasties had prepared for them, albeit unconsciously. Thus they won the duchy of Austria with Styria in 1282, Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, Tirol in 1363, and the Vorarlberg in bits from 1375 to 1523, not to speak of minor “rectifications” of frontiers on the northern slope of the Alps. But on the other slope their progress was slower, and finally less successful. It is true that they early won Primiero (1373), as well as (1517) the Ampezzo Valley and several towns to the south of Trent. In 1797 they obtained Venetia proper, in 1803 the secularized bishoprics of Trent and Brixen (as well as that of Salzburg, more to the north), besides the Valtellina region, and in 1815 the Bergamasque valleys, while the Milanese had belonged to them since 1535. But, as is well known, in 1859 they lost to the house of Savoy both the Milanese and the Bergamasca, and in 1866 Venetia proper also, so that the Trentino is now their chief possession on the southern slope of the Alps. The gain of the Milanese in 1859 by the future king of Italy (1861) meant that Italy then won the valley of Livigno (between the Upper Engadine and Bormio), which is the only important bit it holds on the non-Italian slope of the Alps, besides the county of Tenda (obtained in 1575, and not lost in 1860), with the heads of certain glens in the Maritime Alps, reserved in 1860 for reasons connected with hunting. Thus the Alpine states (Italy, Switzerland and Austria), other than France and Bavaria, hold bits of territory on the slope of the Alps where one would not expect to find them Roughly speaking, in each of these five lands the Alpine population speaks the tongue of the country, though in Italy there are a few French-speaking districts (the Waldensian valleys as well as the Aosta and Oulx valleys) as well as some German-speaking and Ladin-speaking settlements. In Switzerland there are Italian-speaking regions, as well as some spots (in the Grisons) where the old Romance dialect of Romansch or Ladin survives; while in Austria, besides German, Italian and Ladin, we have a Slavonic-speaking population in the South-Eastern Alps. The highest permanently inhabited village in the Alps is Juf, 6998 ft. (Grisons); while in the French Alps, L’Écot, 6713 ft. (Savoy), and St Véran, 6726 ft. (Dauphiné), are rivals; the Italian Alps boast of Trepalle, 6788 ft. (between Livigno and Bormio), and the Tirolese Alps of Ober Gurgl, 6322 ft., and Fend, 6211 ft. (both in the Oetzthal).

8. Exploration of the High Alps.—The higher region of the Alps were long left to the exclusive attention of the men of the adjoining valleys, even when Alpine travellers (as distinguished from Alpine climbers) began to visit these valleys. It is reckoned that about 20 glacier passes were certainly known before 1600. about 25 more before 1700, and yet another score before 1800; but though the attempt of P. A. Arnod (an official of the duchy of Aosta) in 1689 to “re-open” the Col du Géant may be counted as made by a non-native, we do not come upon another case of the kind till the last quarter of the 18th century. Nor did it fare much better with the high peaks, though the two earliest recorded ascents were due to non-natives, that of the Rochemelon in 1358 having been undertaken in fulfilment of a vow, and that of the Mont Aiguille in 1492 by order of Charles VIII. of France, in order to destroy its immense reputation for inaccessibility—in 1555 Conrad Gesner did not climb Pilatus proper, but only the grassy mound of the Gnepfstein, the lowest and the most westerly of the seven summits. The two first men who really systematically explored the regions of ice and snow were H. B. de Saussure (1740–1799), as regards the Pennine Alps, and the Benedictine monk of Disentis, Placidus à Spescha (1752–1833, most of whose ascents were made before 1806), in the valleys at the sources of the Rhine. In the early 19th century the Meyer family of Aarau conquered in person the Jungfrau (1811) and by deputy the Finsteraarhorn (1812), besides opening several glacier passes, their energy being entirely confined to the Bernese Oberland. Their pioneer work was continued in that district, as well as others, by a number of Swiss, pre-eminent among whom were Gottlieb Studer (1804–1890) of Bern, and Edouard Desor (1811–1882) of Neuchâtel. The first-known English climber in the Alps was Colonel Mark Beaufoy (1764–1827), who in 1787 made an ascent (the fourth) of Mont Blanc, a mountain to which his fellow-countrymen long exclusively devoted themselves, with a few noteworthy exceptions, such as Principal J. D. Forbes (1809–1868), A. T. Malkin (1803–1888), John Ball (1818–1889), and Sir Alfred Wills (b. 1828). Around Monte Rosa the Vincent family, Josef Zumstein (1783–1861), and Giovanni Gnifetti (1801–1867) did good work during the half century between 1778 and 1842, while in the Eastern Alps the Archduke John (1782–1850), Prince F. J. C. von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Salzburg (1809–1885), Valentine Stanig (1774–1847), Adolf Schaubach (1800–1850), above all, P. J. Thurwieser (1789–1865), deserve to be recalled as pioneers in the first half of the 19th century. In the early fifties of the 19th century the taste for mountaineering rapidly developed for several very different reasons. A great stimulus was given to it by the foundation of the various Alpine clubs, each of which drew together the climbers who dwelt in the same country. The first was the English Alpine Club (founded in the winter of 1857–1858), followed in 1862 by the Austrian Alpine Club (which in 1873 was fused, under the name of the German and Austrian Alpine Club, with the German Alpine Club, founded in 1869), in 1863 by the Italian and Swiss Alpine Clubs, and in 1874 by the French Alpine Club, not to mention numerous minor societies of more local character. It was by the members of these clubs (and a few others) that the minute exploration (now all but complete) of the High Alps was carried out, while much has been done in the way of building club huts, organizing and training guides, &c., to smooth the way for later comers, who benefit too by the detailed information published in the periodicals (the first dates from 1863 only) issued by these clubs. Limits of space forbid us to trace out in detail the history of the exploration of the High Alps, but the two sub-joined lists give the dates of the conquest of about fifty of the greater peaks (apart from the two climbed in 1358 and in 1402, see above), achieved before and after 1st January 1858. As a proof of the rapidly-growing activity of Englishmen, it may be pointed out that while before 1858 only four summits (the Mittelhorn, or central peak of the Wetterhörner, the highest point of Monte Rosa, Laquinhorn and Pelmo) were first ascended by Englishmen, in the case of the second list only five (Grand Combin, Wildspitze, Marmolata, Langkofel and Meije) were not so conquered (if the present writer, an American, be included among the English pro hac vice.)

(1) Before 1st January 1858:—Titlis (1744), Ankogel (1762), Mont Vélan (1779), Mont Blanc (1786), Rheinwaldhorn (1789), Gross Glockner (1800), Ortler (1804), Jungfrau (1811), Finsteraarhorn (1812), Zumsteinspitze (1820), Tödi (1824), Altels (1834), Piz Linard (1835), Gross Venediger (1841), Signalkuppe (1842), Wetterhörner (1844–1845), Mont Pelvoux (1848), Diablerets and Piz Bernina (both in 1850), highest point of Monte Rosa (1855), Laquinhorn (1856) and Pelmo (1857).

(2) After 1st January 1858:—Dom (1858), Aletschhorn, Bietschhorn and Grand Combin (all in 1859), Grand Paradis and Grande Casse (both in 1860), Weisshorn, Monte Viso, Gross Schreckhorn, Lyskamm and Wildspitze (all in 1861), Dent Blanche, Monte della Disgrazia and Täschhorn (all in 1862), Marmolata, Presanella, Pointe des Ecrins and Zinal Rothhorn (all in 1864), Matterhorn, Ober Gabelhorn, Aiguille Verte and Piz Roseg (all in 1865), Langkofel (1869), Cimon della Pala (1870), Rosengarten (1872), Meije (1877), Aiguille du Dru (1878), Punta dell’ Argentera (1879), Aiguille des Charmoz (1880), Aiguille de Grépon (1881) and Aiguille du Géant (1882).

9. General List of Books and Maps.—(1) Books.—For a longer list than we can give see John Ball’s Hints and Notes for Travellers in the Alps (new ed., 1899) and also A. Wäber’s Landes- und Reisebeschreibungen der Schweiz (1899, supplement in 1907). in general see J. Ball’s The Alpine Guide (3 vols., new ed. of vol. i., 1898; last ed. of vol. ii., 1876, and of vol. iii., 1879); H. A. Berlepsch, Die Alpen in Natur- und Lebensbildern (last ed., 1885, Eng. trans., 1861); T. G. Bonney, The Alpine Regions of Switzerland and the Neighbouring Countries (1868); A. Civiale, Les Alpes au point de vue de ta géographie physique (1882); Sir Martin Conway, The Alps (1904); W. A. B. Coolidge, Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-Books (1889) and The Alps (1908); R. von Lendenfeld, Aus den Alpen (2 vols., 1896); C. Lentheric, L’Homme devant les Alpes (1896); F. Umlauft, Die Alpen (1887, Eng. trans., 1889). On some special subjects see W. A. Baillie-Grohmann, Sport in the Alps (1896); A. Mossó, Fisiologia dell’ Uomo sulle Alpi (1897, English trans., 1898); N. Zuntz and others, Hohenklima und Bergwanderungen in ihrer Wirkungen auf den Menschen (1906); G. Perndt, Der Föhn (1896, the south wind, so important in mountain districts); and the article on Glacier.

As to Alpine legends, consult Maria Savi-Lopez, Leggende delle Alpi (1889); M. Tscheinen, Walliser-Sagen (1872); Th. Vernaleken, Alpensagen (1858); and I. V. Zingerle, Sagen aus Tirol (1859); and as to Alpine poetry—J. Adam, Der Natursinn in der deutschen Dichtung (1906); E. A. Baker and F. E. Ross, The Voice of The Mountains (1905, an anthology in verse and prose); A. von Haller, Die Alpen (1732, first ed., 1882, illustrated ed., 1902); and H. E. Jenny, Die Alpendichtung in der deutschen Schweiz (1905).

As to Alpine dialects, consult J. Alton, Die ladinischen Idiome in Ladinien, Gröden, Fassa, Buchenstein, Ampezzo (1879); J. A. Chabrand and A. de Rochas d’Aiglun, Patois des Alpes cottiennes (1877).; Z. and E. Pallioppi, Dizionari dels Idioms Romauntschs d’Engiadina ota e bassa, &c. (1895); A. Socin, Schriftsprache und Dialekte im Deutschen (1888); F. J. Stalder, Die Landessprachen der Schweiz (1819), and J. Zimmerli, Die deutsch-französische Sprachgrenze in der Schweiz (3 vols., 1891–1899); besides the great Swiss Dialect Dictionary (Schweiz. Idiotikon) in course of publication since 1881.

As to the history of the Alps, the following works touch on various aspects of the subject:—G. Allais, Le Alpi Occidentali nell’ Antichità (1891); W. Brockedon, Illustrations of the Passes of the Alps (2 vols., 1828–1829); J. Grand-Carteret, La Montagne à travers les ages (2 vols., 1902–1904); G. Oberziner, Le Guerre di Augusto contro i populi alpini (1900); E. Oehlmann, Die Alpenpasse im Mittelalter (1878–1879); R. Peinhard, Pässe und Strassen in den Schweizer Alpen (1903); and L. Vaccarone, Le Vie delle Alpi Occidentali negli antichi tempi (1884); while W. A. B. Coolidge’s Josias Simler et les origines de l’alpinisme jusqu’en 1600 (1904) summarises our knowledge of the Alps up to 1600.

Among works of a more or less descriptive nature (based on actual travels), the following list includes all the standard works dated before 1855:—Le Alpi che cingono l’Italia (1845); J. G. Altmann, Versuch einer hist. u. phys. Beschreibung der helvetischen Eisbergen (1751); A. C. Bordier, Voyage pittoresque aux glacières de Savoye (173); P. J. de Bourcet, Mémoires militaires sur les frontières de la France, du Piémont, et de la Savoie (1801); M. T. Bourrit, Description des glacières, glaciers, et amas de glace du duché de Savoye (1773, Eng. trans., 1775), Description des Alpes pennines et rhétiennes (2 vols., 178i, 3rd vol., 1785), and Description des cols ou passages des Alpes (2 vols., 1803); W. Brockedon, Journals of Excursions in the Alps (1833); U. Campell, Raetiae alpestris topographica descriptio (finished in 1572, but publ. only in 1884, with a supplement in 1900); J. A. Deluc and P. G. Dentan, Relation de différents voyages dans les Alpes du Faucigny (1776); E. Desor Excursions et séjours dans les glaciers (2 series, 1844–1845); C. M. Engelhardt, Naturschilderungen aus den höchsten Schweizer-Alpen (1840), and Das Monte-Rosa und Matterhorn-Gebirg (1852); J. D. Forbes, Travels through the Alps of Savoy (1843: new ed., 1900): Sir John Forbes, A Physician’s Holiday (1849); J. Fröbel, Reise in die weniger bekannten Thäler auf der Nordseite der penninischen Alpen (1840); G. Gnifetti, Nozioni topografiche del Monte Rosa ed ascensioni su di esso (1845, 2nd ed., 1838); G. S. Gruner, Die Eisgebirge des Schweizerlandes (3 vols., 1760); J. Hegetschweiler, Reisen in den Gebirgsstock zwischen Glarus und Graubünden, 1819—1822 (1825); G. Hoffmann, Wanderungen in der Gletscherwelt (1843); F. J. Hugi, Naturhistorische Alpenreise (1830); C. J. Latrobe, The Alpenstock (1829) and The Pedestrian (1832); J. R. and H. Meyer, Reise auf den Jungfrau-Gletscher und Ersteigung seines Gipfels (1811): De Montannel, La Topographie militaire de la frontière des Alpes (written in 1777, but publ. in 1875 only); Opérations géodésiques et astronomiques pour la mesure d’un arc du parallèle moyen (2 vols., 1825–1827); H. R. Rebmann, Ein poetisch Gastmal und Gespräch zweyer Bergen, nemlich des Niesens und Stockhorns (1606); C. Rohrdorf, Reise über die Grindelwald-Viescher-Gletscher und Ersteigung des Gletschers des Jungfrau-Berges (1828); H. B. de Saussure, Voyages dans les Alpes (4 vols., 1779–1796); A. Schaubach, Deutsche Alpen (4 vols., 1845–1847); J. J. Scheuchzer, Helvetiae Stoicheiographia, Orographia, et Oreographia (1716), and Itinera per Helvetiae alpinas regiones facta annis 1702–1711 (4 vols., 1725); J. Simler, Vallesiae Descriptio et de Alpibus Commentarius (1574, new ed. in 1904, see Coolidge above); Albert Smith, The Story of Mont Blanc (1853); G. Studer, Topographische Mitteilungen aus dem Alpengebirge (1843); R. Töpffer, Voyages en zigzag (2 series, 1844 and 1853); Aegid. Tschudi, De priscâ ac verâ alpinâ Rhaetiâ (1538, also in German, same date); and L. von Weldon, Der Monte Rosa (1824).

As to works published after 1855 we can only give a short, though carefully selected, list. C. Aeby and others, Das Hochgebirge von Grindelwald (1865); W. A. Baillie-Grohmann, Tyrol and the Tyrolese (1876), and Gaddings with a Primitive People (2 vols., 1878); H. von Barth, Aus den nördlichen Kalkalpen (1874); L. Barth and L. Pfaundler, Die Stubaiergebirgsgruppe (1863); G. F. Browne, Off the Mill (1895); Mrs H. W. Cole, A Lady’s Tour round Monte Rosa (1859); E. T. Coleman, Scenes from the Snow Fields (1859); Sir Martin Conway, The Alps from End to End (1895); A. Daudet, Tartarin sur les Alpes (1885, Eng. trans., same date); C. T. Dent, Above the Snow Line (1883); Miss A. B. Edwards, Untrodden Peaks and Unfrequented Valleys (1873, Dolomites); Max Förderreuther, Die Allgäuer Alpen (1906); D. W. Freshfield, Across Country from Thonon to Trent (1865), and Italian Alps (1875); Mrs Henry Freshfield, Alpine Byways (1861), and A Summer Tour in the Grisons (1862); H. B. George, The Oberland and its Glaciers (1866); J. Gilbert and G. C. Churchill, The Dolomite Mountains (1854); A. G. Girdlestone, The High Alps without Guides (1870); P. Grohmann, Wanderungen in den Dolomiten (1877); P. Güssfeldt, In den Hochalpen (1886), and Der Montblanc (1894); T. W. Hinchliff, Summer Months among the Alps (1857); C. Hudson and E. S. Kennedy, Where there’s a Will there’s a Way (1856); E. Javelle, Souvenirs d’ un Alpiniste (1886, Eng. trans., 1899); S. W. King, The Italian Valleys of the Pennine Alps (1858); Le Valli di Lanzo (publ. by the Italian Alpine Club in 1899); A. Lorria and E. A. Mariel, Le Massif de la Bernina (1894); J. Michelet, La Montagne (1868, Eng. trans., 1872); A. W. Moore, The Alps in 1864 (1867, publ. ed., 1902); A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps (1895); Norman-Neruda, The Climbs of (1899); Peaks, Passes and Glaciers (3 vols., 1859–1862); L. Purtscheller, Über Fels und Firn (1901); E. Rambert, Ascensions et flâneries (2 vols., 1888); G. Rey, Il Monte Cervino (1904); John Ruskin, vol. iv. (On Mountain Beauty) of Modern Painters (1856); A. von Ruthner, Aus den Tauern (1864) and Aus Tirol (1869); V. Sella and D. Vallino, Monte Rosa e Gressoney (1890); F. Simony, Das Dachsteingebiet (1889–1896); L. Sinigaglia, Climbing Reminiscences of the Dolomites (1896); K. von Sonklar, Die Oetzthaler Gebirgsgruppe (1860), and Die Gebirgsgruppe der Hohen-Tauern (1866); Sir L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (1871); B. Studer, Geschichte der physischen Geographie der Schweiz bis 1815 (1863); G. Studer and others, Berg- und Gletscherfahrten (2 series, 1859 and 1863); G. Theobald, Naturbilder aus den rhätischen Alpen (1860), and Das Bündner Oberland (1861); F. F. Tuckett, Hochalpenstudien (2 vols., 1873–1874); Miss L. Tuckett, How we Spent the Summer (1864), Pictures in Tyrol (1867), and Zigzagging amongst Dolomites (1871); J. Tyndall, The Glaciers of the Alps (1860), Mountaineering in 1861 (1862), and Hours of Exercise in the Alps (1871); J. J. Weilenmann, Aus der Firnenwelt (3 vols., 1872–1877); E. Whymper, Scrambles amongst the Alps (1871); Sir A. Wills, Wanderings among the High Alps (1856), and The “Eagle’s Nest” in the Valley of Sixt (1860); G. Yeld, Scrambles in the Eastern Graians (1900); H. Zschokke, Reise auf die Eisgebirge des Kantons Bern und Ersteigung ihrer höchsten Gipfel im Sommer von 1812 (1813); E. Zsigmondy, Im Hochgebirge (1889); M. Zurbriggen, From the Alps to the Andes (1899).

Many useful practical hints as to climbing are to be found in C. T. Dent and others, Mountaineering (1892, 3rd ed., 1900, “Badminton Library”); the Manuel d’Alpinisme (1904, publ. by the French Alpine Club); J. Meurer, Handbuch der alpinen Sport 1882), Katechismus für Bergsteiger (1892), and Der Bergsteiger im Hochgebirge (1893); and C. Wilson, Mountaineering (1893, “All England” series). As regards the dangers of Alpine climbing consult C. Fiorio and C. Ratti, I Pericoli dell’ Alpinismo (1889), and E. Zsigmondy, Die Gefahren der Alpen (1885, Fr. trans., 1889). There are also special guide-books for the use of climbers in the Alps—the “Climbers’ Guides” series, edited by Sir Martin Conway and W. A. B. Coolidge (10 vols., 1890—1894); W. A. B. Coolidge, H. Duhamel and F. Perrin, Guide du Haut Dauphiné (1887, with supplement in 1890, Eng. trans., 1892 and 1905); L. Purtscheller and H. Hess, Der Hochtourist in den Ostalpen (2 vols., 1894, 3 vols., 3rd ed., 1903); the 3 vols. publ. (1902–1905) by the Swiss Alpine Club under the name of Clubführer to the Alps of Glarus and Uri, and V. Wolf von Glanvell, Dolomitenführer (1898).

As regards the early history of Alpine exploration consult W. A. B. Coolidge, Josias Simler et les origines de l’alpinisme jusqu’en 1600 (1904), and F. Gribble, The Early Mountaineers (1899). For the later period see, besides the more general works of travel mentioned above, the publications (that date from 1863) of the various Alpine Clubs—the Alpine Journal (English A. C.), the Annuaire, Bulletin, La Montagne, and Revue alpine (French A. C.), the Jahrbuch, Mitteilungen, Verhandlungen, and Zeitschrift (German and Austrian A. C.), the Alpinista, Bollettino, and Rivista Mensile (Italian A. C.), and the Alpina, Écho des Alpes, Jahrbuch, Schweizer Alpen-Zeitung (Swiss A. C.), besides those of the smaller societies, such as the Österreichische Alpen-Zeitung (Austrian A. C.), the Annuaire (Société des Touristes du Dauphiné), and the Anunuario (Società degli Alpinisti Tridentini). Summaries of the Alpine history of the three great divisions of the Alps are given in (W. Alps) L. Vaccarone, Statistica delle Prime Ascensioni nelle Alpi Occidentali (3rd. ed., 1890—this work omits the Dauphiné Alps, as to which see the 1887 work or its Eng. version 1905, mentioned above); (Central and Swiss Alps) G. Studer, Über Eis und Schnee (2nd ed. 3 vols., 1896–1899); and (E. Alps) G. Gröger and J. Rabl, Die Entwickelung der Hochtouristik in den österreichischen Alpen (1890), and E. Pichter, Die Erschliessung der Ostalpen (3 vols., 1894). The detailed history of Mont Blanc has been written by Ch. Durier, Le Mont Blanc (1877, 4th ed., 1897), and C. E. Mathews, The Annals of Mont Blanc (1898). Lives of some of the most celebrated mountain guides have been written in C. D. Cunningham and W. de W. Abney, Pioneers of the Alps (2nd ed., 1888).

(2) Maps.—There is no good modern and fairly large-scale map of the entire chain of the Alps. But L. Ravenstein’s maps (scale 1:250,000) of the Swiss Alps (2 sheets) and of the Eastern Alps (8 sheets) include the whole chain, save that portion south of the range of Mont Blanc.

All the countries which include Alpine districts have now issued official Government maps. The French map on a scale of 1:80,000 is clearer and more accurate than that on a scale of 1:100,000. The Italian Government has published maps on scales of 1:50,000 and 1:100,000. the Austrian on a scale of 1:75,000, and the Bavarian on a scale of 1:50,000. But the most splendid Government map of all is that put forth by the Swiss Federal Topographical Bureau, under the title of Siegfried Atlas (scale 1:50,000 for the Alpine districts), which has quite superseded the Dufour Map (scale 1:100,000), the history of which was published in 1896. For maps of the Swiss Alps and their neighbours, see J. H. Graf, Literatur der Landesvermessung (1896 with a supplement).

A few of the best special maps of certain districts may be mentioned— such as H. Duhamel’s maps of the Dauphiné Alps (4 sheets on a scale of 1:100,000, 1889, 2nd ed., 1892), and that of the range of Mont Blanc (scale 1:50,000, 1896, 2nd ed., 1905), by X. Imfeld and L. Kurz. The German and Austrian Alpine Club is publishing a very fine set of maps (scale 1:50,000) of the Eastern Alps, which are clearer and better than the Austrian Government’s Topographische Detailkarten (11 sheets, scale 1:50,000).  (W. A. B. C.) 

10. Geology.—The Alps form but a small portion of a great zone of crumpling which stretches, in a series of curves, from the Atlas Mountains to the Himalayas. Within this zone the crust of the earth has been ridged up into a complex system of creases or folds, out of which the great mountain chains of southern Europe and Asia have been carved by atmospheric agencies. Superficially, the continuity of the zone is broken at intervals by gaps of greater or less extent; but these are due, in part at least, to the subsidence of portions of the folded belt and their subsequent burial by more recent accumulations. Such a gap is that between the Alps and the Carpathians, but a glance at a geological map of the region will show that the folding was probably at one time continuous. Leaving, however, the larger question of the connexion between the great mountain ranges of Europe and Asia, we find that the Alps are formed of a series of wrinkles or folds, one behind another, frequently arranged en échelon. The folds run, in general, in the direction of the chain, and together they form an arc around the plain of Lombardy and Piedmont. Outside this arc lies a depression along which the waters of the upper Danube and the lower Rhone find their way towards the sea; and beyond rise the ancient crystalline masses of Bohemia, the Black Forest and the central plateau of France, together with the intervening Mesozoic beds of southern Germany and the Jura. The depression is filled by Miocene and later beds, which for the most part lie flat and undisturbed as they were laid down. Beyond the depression also, excepting in the Jura Mountains, there is no sign of the folding which has raised the Alpine chain. Some of the older beds indeed are crumpled, but the folding is altogether different in age and in direction from that of the Alps.

To assist in forming a clear idea of the relations of the Alps to the surrounding regions, a simple illustration will suffice. Upon a table covered by a cloth lay two books in the relative positions shown in figure. The book A represents the central plateau of France and the book B represents the rocks of Bohemia and southern Germany.
Fig. 1.—Looking down
on the table.
If the two hands be placed flat upon the table, in the angle between the two books, and the cloth pushed towards the corner, it will at once be rucked up into a fold which will follow a curve not unlike that of the Alps. The precise character and form of the folds produced will depend upon the nature of the cloth and other accidental circumstances; but with a little adjustment not only a representation of the chain of the Alps, but even a subsidiary fold in front in the position of the Jura Mountains may be obtained. Imperfect though this illustration may be, it will serve to explain the modern conception of the forces concerned in the formation of the Alps. Within the crust of the earth, whether by the contraction of the interior or in any other way, tangential pressures were set up. Since the crust is not of uniform strength throughout, only the weaker portions yielded to the pressure; and these were crumpled up against the more resisting portions and sometimes were pushed over them. In the case of the Alps it seems natural enough that the crystalline masses of Bohemia, the Black Forest and the central plateau of France should be firmer than the more modern sedimentary deposits; but it is not so easy to understand why the Mesozoic rocks of southern Germany resisted the folding, while those of the Jura yielded. It should, however, be borne in mind that the resisting mass is not necessarily at the surface. Such is in outline the process by which the Alps were elevated; but when the chain is examined in detail, it is found that its history has not been uniform throughout; and it will be convenient, for purposes of description, to divide it into three portions, which may be called the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, and the Western Alps.

The Eastern Alps consist of a central mass of crystalline and schistose rocks flanked on each side by a zone of Mesozoic beds and on the north by an outer band of Tertiary deposits. On the Italian side there is usually no zone of folded Tertiaries and the Mesozoic band forms the southern Eastern Alps.border of the chain. Each of these zones is folded within itself, and the folding is more intense on the Bavarian side than on the Italian, the folds often leaning over towards the north. The Tertiary zone of the northern border is of especial significance and is remarkable for its extent and uniformity. It is divided longitudinally into an outer zone of Molasse and an inner zone of Flysch. The line of separation is very clearly defined; nowhere does the Molasse pass beyond it to the south and nowhere does the Flysch extend beyond it to the north. The Molasse, in the neighbourhood of the mountains, consists chiefly of conglomerates and sandstones, and the Flysch consists of sandstones and shales; but the Molasse is of Miocene and Oligocene age, while the Flysch is mainly Eocene. The relations of the two series are never normal. Along the line of contact, which is often a fault, the oldest beds of the Molasse crop out, and they are invariably overturned and plunge beneath the Flysch. A few miles farther north these same beds rise again to the surface at the summit of an anticlinal which runs parallel to the chain. Beyond this point all signs of folding gradually cease and the beds lie flat and undisturbed.

The Flysch is an extraordinarily thick and uniform mass of sandstones and shales with scarcely any fossils excepting fucoids. It is intensely folded and is constantly separated from the Mesozoic zone by a fault. Throughout the whole extent of the Eastern Alps it is strictly limited to the belt between this fault and the marginal zone of Molasse. Eocene beds, indeed, penetrate farther within the chain, but these are limestones with nummulites or lignite-bearing shales and have nothing in common with the Flysch. But although the Flysch is so uniform in character, and although it forms so well-defined a zone, it is not everywhere of the same age. In the west it seems to be entirely Eocene, but towards the east intercalated beds with Inoceramus, &c., indicate that it is partly of Cretaceous age. It is, in fact, a facies and nothing more. The most probable explanation is that the Flysch consists of the detritus washed down from the hills upon the flanks of which it was formed. It bears, indeed, very much the same relation to the Alps that the Siwalik beds of India bear to the Himalayas.

The Mesozoic belt of the Bavarian and Austrian Alps consists mainly of the Trias, Jurassic and Cretaceous beds playing a comparatively subordinate part. But between the Trias of the Eastern Alps and the Trias of the region beyond the Alpine folds there is a striking contrast. North of the Danube, in Germany as in England, red sandstones, shales and conglomerates predominate, together with beds of gypsum and salt. It was a continental formation, such as is now being formed within the desert belt of the globe. Only the Muschelkalk, which does not reach so far as England, and the uppermost beds, the Rhaetic, contain fossils in any abundance. The Trias of the Eastern Alps, on the other hand, consists chiefly of great masses of limestone with an abundant fauna, and is clearly of marine origin. The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds also differ, though in a less degree, from those of northern Europe. They consist largely of limestone; but marls and sandstones are by no means rare, and there are considerable gaps in the succession indicating that the region was not continuously beneath the sea. Tithonian fossils, characteristic of southern Europe, occur in the upper Jurassic, while the Gosau beds, belonging to the upper Cretaceous, contain many of the forms of the Hippuritic sea. Nevertheless, the difference between the deposits on the two sides of the chain shows that the central ridge was dry land during at least a part of the period.

The central zone of crystalline rock consists chiefly of gneisses and schists, but folded within it is a band of Palaeozoic rocks which divides it longitudinally into two parts. Palaeozoic beds also occur along the northern and southern margins of the crystalline zone. The age of a great part of the Palaeozoic belts is somewhat uncertain, but Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian and Silurian fossils have been found in various parts of the chain, and it is not unlikely that even the Cambrian may be represented.

The Mesozoic belt of the southern border of the chain extends from Lago Maggiore eastwards. Jurassic and Cretaceous beds play a larger part than on the northern border, but the Trias still predominates. On the west the belt is narrow, but towards the east it gradually widens, and north of Lago di Garda its northern boundary is suddenly deflected to the north and the zone spreads out so as to include the whole of the Dolomite mountains of Tirol. The sudden widening is due to the great Judicaria fault, which runs from Lago d’Idro to the neighbourhood of Meran, where it bends round to the east. The throw of this fault may be as much as 2000 metres, and the drop is on its south-east side, i.e. towards the Adriatic. It is probable, indeed, that the fault took a large share in the formation of the Adriatic depression. On the whole, the Mesozoic beds of the southern border of the Alps point to a deeper and less troubled sea than those of the north. Clastic sediments are less abundant and there are fewer breaks in the succession. The folding, moreover, is less intense; but in the Dolomites of Tirol there are great outbursts of igneous rock, and faulting has occurred on an extensive scale.

West of a line which runs from Lake Constance to Lago Maggiore the zones already described do not continue with the same simplicity. The zone of the Molasse is little changed, but the Flysch is partly folded in the Mesozoic belt and no longer forms an absolutely independent band. The Trias has almost disappeared, and what remains is Swiss Alps.not of the marine type characteristic of the Eastern Alps but belongs rather to the continental facies which occurs in Germany and France. Jurassic and Cretaceous beds form the greater part of the Mesozoic band. On the southern side of the chain the Mesozoic zone disappears entirely a little west of Lago Maggiore and the crystalline rocks rise directly from the plain.

Perhaps the strangest problem in the whole of Switzerland is that presented by the so-called Klippen. Within the Alps, when normally developed, we may trace the individual folds for long distances and observe how they arise, increase and die out, to be replaced by others of similar direction. But at times, within or on the border of the northern Eocene trough, the continuity of the folds is suddenly broken by mountain masses of quite different constitution. These are the Klippen, and they are especially important in the Chablais and between the Lakes of Geneva and Thun. Not only is the folding of the Klippen wholly independent of that of the zone in which they lie, but the rocks which form them are of foreign facies. They consist chiefly of Jurassic and Triassic beds, but it is the Trias and the Jura of the Eastern Alps and not of Switzerland. Moreover, although they interrupt the folding of the zone in which they occur, they do not disturb it: they do not, in fact, rise through the zone, but lie upon it like unconformable masses—in other words, they rest upon a thrust-plane. Whence they have come into their present position is by no means clear; but the character of the beds which form them indicates a distant origin. It is interesting to note, in this connexion, that the pebbles of the Swiss Molasse are not generally such as would be derived from the neighbouring mountains, but resemble the rocks of the Eastern Alps. The Klippen are, no doubt, the remains of a much larger mass brought into the region upon a thrust-plane, and much of the Molasse has been derived from its destruction. Although the explanation here given of the origin of the Swiss Klippen is that which now is usually accepted, it should be mentioned that other theories have been proposed to account for their peculiarities.

In the Western Alps the outer border of Molasse persists; but it no longer forms so well-defined a zone, and strips are infolded amongst the older rocks. The Eocene has altogether lost its independence as a band and occurs only in patches within the Mesozoic zone. The latter, on the other hand, assumes a greater importance and forms nearly the Western Alps.whole of the subalpine ranges. It consists almost entirely of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, the Trias in these outer ranges being of very limited extent. The main chain is formed chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks, which on the Italian side rise directly from the plain without any intervening zone of Mesozoic beds. But it is divided longitudinally by a well-marked belt of stratified deposits, known as the zone of the Briançonnais, composed chiefly of Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic beds. The origin of the schistose rocks has long been under discussion, and controversy has centred more particularly around the schistes lustrés, which are held by some to be of Triassic age and by others to be pre-Carboniferous and even, perhaps, Archaean. Partly in consequence of the uncertainty as to the age of these and other rocks, there is considerable difference of opinion as to the structure of the Western Alps. According to the view most widely accepted in France the main chain as a whole forms a fan, the folds on the eastern side leaning towards Italy and those on the western side towards France. The zone of the Briançonnais lies in the middle of the fan.

From the above account it will at once appear that between the convex and the concave margins of the Alpine chain there is a striking difference. Upon the outer side of the arc the central zone of crystalline rocks is flanked by Mesozoic and Tertiary belts; towards the west, indeed, the individuality of these belts is lost, to a large extent, but the rocks remain. Upon the inner Asymmetry of the Alps.side the Tertiary band is found only in the eastern part of the chain, while towards the west, first the Tertiary and then the Mesozoic band disappears against the modern deposits of the low land. The appearance is strongly suggestive of faulting; and probably the southern margin of the chain lies buried beneath the plain of northern Italy.

The chain of the Alps was not raised by a single movement nor in a single geological period. Its growth was gradual and has not been uniform throughout. In the Eastern Alps the central ridge seems to have been in existence at least as early as Triassic times, but it has since been subject to several oscillations. The most conspicuous folding, that of the Age of
the Alps.
Mesozoic and Tertiary belts, must have occurred in Tertiary times, and it was not completed till the Miocene period. The structure of the zones in the Bavarian Alps seems to suggest that the chain grew outwards in successive stages, each stage being marked by the formation of a boundary fault. A precisely similar structure is seen in the Himalayas.

Authorities.—The literature is very extensive. The following list includes a few selected works on each portion of the chain:—F. Frech, “Die karnischen Alpen,” Abh. naturf Ges Halle, vol. xviii (1892 and 1894); A. Rothpletz, Ein geologischer Querschnitt durch die Ost-Alpen (Stuttgart, 1894); C. Diener, “Bau und Bild der Ostalpen und des Karstgebietes,” in Bau und Bild Österreichs (Vienna and Leipzig, 1903): Livret-guide géologique dans le Jura et les Alpes de la Suisse (Paris and Lausanne, 1894); A. Helm, Mechanismus der Gebirgsbildung (Basel, 1878); D. Zaccagna, “Riassunto di osservazioni geologiche fatte sul versante occidentale delle Alpi Graie,” Boll. R. Com. Geol. Ital. vol. xxiii. (1892), pp. 175-244; C. Diener, Der Gebirgsbau der West-Alpen (1894); M. Bertrand, “Études dans les Alpes françaises,” Bull. Soc. Géol. France, ser. 3, vol. xxii (1894), pp. 69-162; S. Franchi, “Sull’ età mesozoica della zona delle pietri verdi nelle Alpi Occidentali,” Boll. R. Geol. Ital. vol. xxix. (1898), pp. 173-217, 325-482, pts. v.-ix. For the broader question of the relation of the Alps to other regions, E. Suess, Das Antlitz der Erde (Vienna, 1885) (English translation, Oxford, 1904) should be consulted. The Geologischer Führer durch die Alpen, published by Borntraeger, Berlin, are handy guides. (P. La.) 

11. Flora.—The Alps owe the richness and beauty of their plant life partly to their position as the natural boundary between the “Baltic” flora on the north and the “Mediterranean” flora on the south, but chiefly to the presence on their heights of a third flora which has but little in common with either of the others. The stronghold of this last, the distinctively “Alpine” flora, is the region above the tree-limit. Its closest relationship is with the flora of the Pyrenees; but an alpine flora is characteristic of all the lofty mountains of central Europe. According to J. Ball, 2010 well-marked species of flowering plants occur within the limits of the Alps. If now we confine our attention to the alpine and higher regions of the Alps and exclude from our list all those plants which, however abundant in these regions, are not less so in the adjacent lowlands, we have left some 700 species (693, according to Dr Christ). We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical tree-limit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g. they overflow into the extensive clearings made by man in the primeval mountain forests. Indeed, an analysis of the composition of the alpine flora as a whole leads to the conclusion that the chief bond of union between its members consists in the treeless character of their habitat.

We may broadly distinguish two main geographical elements in the alpine flora, namely, the northern element and the endemic element. This division (which is not, however, strictly exhaustive) directs special attention to what is undoubtedly the most striking feature of the flora—namely, that of its 693 species no less than 271 reappear in the extreme north. This relation of the arctic to the alpine flora is all the more remarkable in view of the very important differences between the arctic and alpine climates. The following circumpolar species are common, and widely diffused throughout the whole of the Alps: Silene acaulis, Dryas octopetala, Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. aizoides, S. stellaris, Erigeron alpinus, Azalea procumbens, Myosotis alpestris, Polygonum viviparum, Salix retusa, S. herbacea, Phleum alpinum, Juniperus nana. The proportion of northern forms, as regards both species and individuals, increases as we ascend to the higher regions. In the highest vegetation-zone, the snow-region—i.e. on islands of rock above the snow-line—they attain to an equality with the endemic forms. As examples of northern flowers which are characteristic of the snow-region, we may mention Silene acaulis, Eritrichium nanum and Arenaria ciliata. On the other hand, typical endemic species of this highest zone are Androsace helvetica, A. glacialis, Petrocallis pyrenaica and Cherleria sedoides. All the plants just named, we may observe, are “cushion-plants.” Their compact, moss-like growth and general structural peculiarities are not an expression of mutual affinity, but are in adaptation to the combined cold and dryness of their habitat. It is noteworthy that among the northern plants of the alpine zone, in the narrower sense of the term (i.e. of the region between the tree-limit and the snow-line), there is a marked predominance of species that affect moist localities; and conversely, the majority of alpine flowers of wet habitat are found also in the north. For example, in the genus Primula, a highly characteristic genus of the alpine flora, whose members are among the most striking ornaments of the rocks, the single northern species, P. farinosa, grows only in marshy meadows. On the whole, then, adaptation to cold and wet is the note of the northern element.

As for the explanation of the community between the alpine and arctic floras, all authorities are agreed that the key to the problem is furnished by the occurrence of the glacial period. In the ice-free belt, between the northern ice-sheet and the vastly extended glaciers of the Alps, the two floras must have found a common refuge and congenial conditions of existence; and this view is confirmed by direct palaeontological evidence. With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps. The same explanation covers the case of the similarity of the flora (not merely as regards the northern element) on all the high mountains of central Europe. So much seems to be beyond reasonable doubt. But at this point disagreement begins between the most eminent writers on the subject. While some (e.g. Sir J. D. Hooker, Heer) regard the Arctic, and some (e.g. Wettstein) the Alps, as the original home of at least the bulk of the “northern” element, others (e.g. Ball, Christ) locate this in the highlands of temperate Asia. For it is a remarkable fact that, of the 230 northern species which are most typical of the far north, 182 are found also in the Altai (taking this as a collective name for the mountains that form the southern boundary of Siberia). In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic. The possibility of any extensive east to west migration having taken place direct from the Altai to the Alps seems excluded by the fact that 50% of the arctico-altaic alpine plants are absent from the Caucasus. A score of species, it is true—not such a number, be it observed, as was formerly supposed—are common to the Alps and Altai, but absent from the Arctic. But the species composing this Altaic element are not so numerous as the arctico-alpine species that are absent from the Altai. On the whole, a common origin in the north for at least the arctico-altaic group of alpine plants seems to be the most reasonable hypothesis.

Side by side with the northern element (which in some respects, we may observe to point the contrast, would be better named the tundra-element) we find a group of species usually spoken of as the xerothermic or meridional element. These do not, however, form an “element,” in the strict geographical sense in which this term is otherwise used here. They are those species which, on general phyto-geographical grounds, must be regarded as having originated under steppe-like conditions. Their affinities are chiefly, though not exclusively, with the present Mediterranean flora—about fifty are of presumably Mediterranean origin—and a large proportion of them are restricted to the southern slopes of the Alps. The following, however, among others, are distributed throughout the whole, or a great part, of the range: Colchicum alpinum, Crocus vernus, Orchis globosa, Petrocallis pyrenaica, Astragalus depressus, A. aristatus, Oxytropis Halleri, Eryngium alpinum, Erica carnea, Linaria alpina, Globularia nudicaulis, G. cordifolia, Leontopodium alpinum. The last named (the well-known “edelweiss”) is at the present day characteristic of the Siberian steppes. The presence of these plants among the alpine flora is traceable to the steppe-like conditions which prevailed in central Europe both during the warmer inter-glacial periods and (probably) for a time after the close of the ice-age. Subsequently, as the climate of the plains assumed a colder and more humid character, they retired before the invading forests to the high mountains. Here, in the intenser insolation which they enjoy on the alpine slopes, they seem to find a compensation for the drawbacks incidental to the altitude of their present station.

As regards now the endemic element as a whole, the question as to the time and place of its origin is of a highly complicated and controversial nature. The question, too, in the case of this element, is necessarily of genetic rather than purely geographical scope. It must suffice to say that the weight of scientific opinion inclines to the view that at least the majority of endemic species are of pre-glacial origin, and are either strictly indigenous or products of the neighbouring lowlands. About 40% of the endemic element in the alpine flora are endemic also in the narrower sense, i.e. they are confined to the Alps. Many of them are restricted to some one small portion of the chain; these occur chiefly in the southern and eastern Alps. It is an interesting fact that the centrally situated Bernese Alps produce hardly a single peculiar species. The greater richness of certain districts in the matter of species is partly due to the variety of soils encountered therein; but in part may be explained by the fact that these districts were the first to be freed from the ice-sheet at the end of the glacial period.

The following is a list of the most thoroughly characteristic alpine plants—all of them ipso facto members of the endemic element—which are at once peculiar to the Alps (or practically so) and widely distributed within the limits of the chain. These are: Festuca pulchella, Carex microstyla, Salix caesia, Rumex nivalis, Alsine aretioides, Aquilegia alpina, Thlaspi rotundifolium, Saxifraga Seguieri, S. aphylla, Astragalus leontinus, Daphne striata, Eryngium alpinum, Bupleurum stellatum, Androsace helvetica, A. glacialis, Gentiana bavarica, Phyteuma humile, Campanula thyrsoidea, C. cenisia, Achillea atrata, Cirsium spinosissimum, Crepis Terglouensis.

Authorities.—Among the voluminous literature on alpine flora, the following works are particularly noteworthy:—Ball, “On the Origin of the Flora of the European Alps,” in Proceed. of the Roy. Geog. Soc., 1879; Bennett, The Flora of the Alps, 2 vols. with 120 coloured plates (1896); Briquet, “Les Colonies végétales xérothermiques des alpes lémaniennes,” in Bull. d. l. Murithienne, soc. valaisienne des sciences nat., xxvii. and xxviii. (1898–1899); Alph. de Candolle, “Sur les causes de l’inégale distribution des plantes rares dans la chaîne des Alpes,” Extr. des Actes du Congrès botan. internat. de Florence (1875); Chodat u. Pampanini, “Sur la distribution des plantes des alpes austro-orientales,” Extr. du Globe, organe de la soc. de géographie de Genève, tome xli. (1902); H. Christ, Das Pflanzenleben der Schweiz (1882)—the chief classic on the subject; Engler, Die Pflanzenformationen und die pflanzengeographische Gliederung der Alpenkette (1901); Heer, Ueber die nivale Flora der Schweiz (1885); Jerosch, Geschichte und Herkunft der schweizerischen Alpenflora; eine Übersicht über den gegenwärtigen Stand der Frage (1903); Schröter, Das Pflanzenleben der Alpen (Zürich, 1908); R. von Wettstein, Die Geschichte unserer Alpenflora (1896). The best book of coloured plates is the Atlas der Alpenflora, in 5 vols., pub. by the Deutscher u. Oesterreichischer Alpenverein (2nd. ed., 1897).

12. Fauna.—The fauna of the lower zones in the Alps is, on the northern side of the chain, practically identical with that of central Europe, and on the southern side with that of the Mediterranean basin. But in the higher regions it presents many features of special interest alike to the zoologist and the traveller. It seems therefore best to treat here principally of the animal inhabitants of the high Alps.

Though among mammalia—as also in the case of the birds—there are but few forms peculiar to the Alps, many interesting animals have found in the high mountains at least a temporary refuge from man. The European bison, the urus, the elk and the wild swine have disappeared since Roman times. But the lynx (Lynx vulgaris) perhaps lingers in remote parts, and the brown bear (Ursus arctos) still survives in the dense forests of the Lower Engadine. The fox (Canis vulpes), the stonemarten (Martes foina) and the stoat or ermine (Putorius erminea) range in summer above the tree-limit. The Ungulata are represented by the chamois (Rupicapra tragus) and the bouquetin or steinbock (Capra ibex). The former—the sole representative, in western Europe, of the antelopes—is found elsewhere only in the Pyrenees, Carpathians, Caucasus and the mountains of eastern Turkey; the latter survives only in the eastern Graian Alps. Of the Rodentia the most interesting and conspicuous is the marmot (Arctomys marmota), which lives in colonies close to the snow-line. The snow-mouse (Arvicola nivalis) is confined to the alpine and snow regions, and is abundant at these levels throughout the whole chain of the Alps. The mountain hare (Lepus variabilis or timidus) replaces the common hare (Lepus europaeus) in the higher regions; though absent from the intervening plains it again appears in the north of Europe and in Scotland. Among the Insectivora, the alpine shrew (Sorex alpinus) is restricted to the Alps. Of the Cheiroptera (bats) only Vesperugo maurus is characteristically alpine.

The birds of the Alps are proportionately very numerous. The lammergeyer (Gypaetus barbatus), once common, is now extremely rare, even if it has not already become extinct in the Alps; but the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) still holds its own. Some of the smaller birds of prey are not uncommon, but there is none that can be regarded as specially characteristic either of the Alps as a whole or of the alpine region. As characteristic birds of the snow-region may be mentioned the alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax alpinus), which is frequently seen at the summits even of the loftiest mountains, the alpine swift (Cypselus melba), the wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), snow-finch (Montifringilla nivalis) and ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus); the geographical distribution of this last being similar to that of the mountain hare. The black redstart (Ruticilla titys), though common in the lower regions, is also met with in fair numbers almost up to the snow-line. The raven (Corvus corax) is fairly common in the alpine and sub-alpine regions. On the highest pastures we find, further, the alpine accentor (Accentor collaris) and the alpine pipit (Anthus spipoletta). The crag-martin (Cotyle rupestris) haunts lofty cliffs in the alpine region. On the upper verge of the pine forests, or in the scrubby vegetation just beyond, the following are not uncommon—black woodpecker (Picus martius), ring-ousel (Turdus torquatus), Bonelli’s warbler (Phylloscopus Bonellii), crested tit (Parus cristatus), citril finch (Citrinella alpina), siskin (Chrysomitris spinus), crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), blackcock (Tetrao tetrix), and the alpine varieties of the marsh-tit (Parus palustris, borealis) and tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris, costae).

The remaining classes of Vertebrata are very sparsely represented in the high Alps; and what few species occur are mostly common to the plains as well. In fact, among the remaining land vertebrates, only the black salamander (Salamandra atra) is exclusively alpine. This interesting animal, though a member of the Amphibia, is terrestrial and viviparous.

The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period. In this respect we may note that two small crustaceans, Diaptomus bacillifer and D. denticornis, swarm in the ice-cold waters of the highest alpine tarns throughout the entire chain; and the former of these is also a characteristic inhabitant of pools formed from melting snow in the extreme north. Among the remaining divisions of Invertebrata special mention may be made of the air-breathing Arthropoda—on the whole the most important and interesting group. About one-third of the animals belonging thereto that occur in the higher regions are exclusively alpine (or alpine and northern); these characteristically alpine forms being furnished chiefly by the spiders, beetles and butterflies. Most numerous are the beetles. Those of the highest zone are remarkable for the great predominance of predaceous species and of wingless forms. In this last respect they present a striking analogy with the endemic coleopterous fauna of oceanic islands. As for the butterflies, not more than one-third of the species found in the alpine region occur in the neighbouring lowlands. The relations between alpine butterflies and plants are especially interesting, as regards not only their bionomic interdependence but also the analogies of their geographical distribution. It should be noted that butterflies are the chief agents in securing the continued existence of such alpine flowers as depend on insect fertilization, the other insect fertilizers being mostly wanting at great heights.

The classic of alpine zoology is F. von Tschudi’s Das Tierleben der Alpenwelt (11th ed., 1890). See also zoological section, by K. W. v. Dalla Torre, of Anleitung zu wissenschaftlichen Beobachtungen auf Alpenreisen. For the Vertebrata, see V. Fatio’s Faune des vertébrés de la Suisse (5 vols., 1869–1904). Die Tierwelt der Hochgebirgsseen, by F. Zschokke (1900) is an important treatise on an interesting department of alpine natural history. C. Zeller’s Alpentiere im Wechsel der Zeit (1892) gives a reliable account of the gradual disappearance of some of the larger forms of life from the Alps. For the inter-relations of alpine insects and flowers, see H. Müller’s Alpenblumen, ihre Befruchtung durch Insekten, und ihre Anpassung an dieselben (1881).  (H. V. K.)