1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Andréossy, Antoine-François

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ANDRÉOSSY, ANTOINE-FRANÇOIS, Count (1761–1828), French soldier and diplomatist, was born at Castelnaudary, in Languedoc, on the 6th of March 1761. He was of Italian extraction, and his ancestor François Andréossy (1633–1688) had been concerned with Riquet in the construction of the Languedoc Canal in 1669. He had a brilliant career at the school of artillery at Metz, obtained his commission in 1781, and became captain in 1788. On the outbreak of the Revolution he adopted its principles. He saw active service on the Rhine in 1794 and in Italy in 1795, and in the campaign of 1796–97 was employed in engineer duties with the Army of Italy. He became chef de brigade in December 1796 and general of brigade in 1798, in which year he accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt. He served in the Egyptian campaign with distinction, and was selected as one of Napoleon’s companions on his return to Europe. Andréossy took part in the coup d’état of the 18th of Brumaire, and on the 6th of January 1800 was made general of division. Of particular importance was his term of office as ambassador to England during the short peace which followed the treaties of Amiens and Lunéville. It had been shown (Coquille, Napoleon and England, 1904) that Andréossy repeatedly warned Napoleon that the British government desired to maintain peace but must be treated with consideration. His advice, however, was disregarded. When Napoleon became emperor he made Andréossy inspector-general of artillery and a count of the empire. In the war of 1805 Andréossy was employed on the headquarters staff of Napoleon. From 1808 to 1809 he was French ambassador at Vienna, where he displayed a hostility to Austria which was in marked contrast to his friendliness to England in 1802–1803. In the war of 1809, Andréossy was military governor of Vienna during the French occupation. In 1812 he was sent by Napoleon as ambassador to Constantinople, where he carried on the policy initiated by Sébastiani. In 1814 he was recalled by Louis XVIII. Andréossy now retired into private life, till the escape of his former master from Elba once again called him forth. In 1826 he was elected to the Académie des Sciences, and in the following year was deputy for the department of the Aude. His numerous works included the following:—on artillery (with which arm he was most intimately connected throughout his military career), Quelques idées relatives à l’usage de l’artillerie dans l’attaque et . . . la défense des places (Metz); Essai sur le tir des projectiles creux (Paris, 1826); and on military history, Campagne sur le Main el la Rednitz de l’armée gallo-batave (Paris, 1802); Opérations des pontonniers en Italie . . . 1795–1796 (Paris, 1843). He also wrote scientific memoirs on the mouth of the Black Sea (1818–1819); on certain Egyptian lakes (during his stay in Egypt); and in particular the history of the Languedoc Canal (Histoire du canal du Midi, 2nd ed., Paris, 1804), the chief credit of which he claimed for his ancestor. Andréossy died at Montauban in 1828.

See Marion, Notice nécrologique sur le Lt.-Général Comte Andréossy.

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