1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Antioch in Pisidia

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ANTIOCH IN PISIDIA, an ancient city, the remains of which, including ruins of temples, a theatre and a fine aqueduct, were found by Arundell in 1833 close to the modern Yalovach. It was situated on the lower southern slopes of the Sultan Dagh, in the Konia vilayet of Asia Minor, on the right bank of a stream, the ancient Anthius, which flows into the Hoiran Geul. It was probably founded on the site of a Phrygian sanctuary, by Seleucus Nicator, before 280 B.C. and was made a free city by the Romans in 189 B.C. It was a thoroughly Hellenized, Greek-speaking city, in the midst of a Phrygian people, with a mixed population that included many Jews. Before 6 B.C. Augustus made it a colony, with the title Caesarea, and it became the centre of civil and military administration in south Galatia, the romanization of which was progressing rapidly in the time of Claudius, A.D. 41–54, when Paul visited it (Acts xiii. 14, xiv. 21, xvi. 6, xviii. 23). In 1097 the crusaders found rest and shelter within its walls. The ruins are interesting, and show that Antioch was a strongly fortified city of Hellenic and Roman type.