1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Bowell, Sir Mackenzie

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BOWELL, SIR MACKENZIE (1823–  ), Canadian politician, son of John Bowell, carpenter and builder, was born at Rickinghall, England, on the 27th of December 1823. In 1833 he moved with his family to Belleville, Canada, where he finally became editor and proprietor of the Intelligencer. He was elected grand master of the Orange Association of British America, and was long the exponent in the Canadian parliament of the claims of that order. From 1867 till 1892 he represented North Hastings in the House, after which he retired to the senate. From 1878 till 1891 he was minister of customs in the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald; then minister of militia; and under the premiership of Sir John Thompson, minister of trade and commerce. From December 1894 till April 1896 he was premier of Canada, and endeavoured to enforce remedial legislation in the question of the Manitoba schools. But his policy was unsuccessful, and he retired from the government. From 1896 till 1906 he led the Conservative party in the senate. In 1894 he presided over the colonial conference held in Ottawa, and in 1895 was created K.C.M.G.