1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Brewing
BREWING, in the modern acceptation of the term, a series of operations the object of which is to prepare an alcoholic beverage of a certain kind—to wit, beer—mainly from cereals (chiefly malted barley), hops and water. Although the art of preparing beer (q.v.) or ale is a very ancient one, there is very little information in the literature of the subject as to the apparatus and methods employed in early times. It seems fairly certain, however, that up to the 18th century these were of the most primitive kind. With regard to materials, we know that prior to the general introduction of the hop (see Ale) as a preservative and astringent, a number of other bitter and aromatic plants had been employed with this end in view. Thus J.L. Baker (The Brewing Industry) points out that the Cimbri used the Tamarix germanica, the Scandinavians the fruit of the sweet gale (Myrica gale), the Cauchi the fruit and the twigs of the chaste tree (Vitex agrius castus), and the Icelanders the yarrow (Achillea millefolium).
- I. TRADE AND TAXATION
- II. MATERIALS USED IN BREWING
- III. BREWING OPERATIONS
- IV. FOREIGN BREWING AND BEERS
- V. BREWING CHEMISTRY
- VI. PLATES
- W.J. Sykes, Principles and Practice of Brewing (London, 1897);
- Moritz and Morris, A Text-book of the Science of Brewing (London, 1891);
- H.E. Wright, A Handy Book for Brewers (London, 1897);
- Frank Thatcher, Brewing and Malting (London, 1898);
- Julian L. Baker, The Brewing Industry (London, 1905);
- E.J. Lintner, Grundriss der Bierbrauerei (Berlin, 1904);
- J.E. Thausing, Die Theorie und Praxis der Malzbereitung und Bierfabrikation (Leipzig, 1898);
- E. Michel, Lehrbuch der Bierbrauerei (Augsburg, 1900);
- E. Prior, Chemie u. Physiologie des Malzes und des Bieres (Leipzig, 1896).
- The Journal of the Institute of Brewing (London);
- The Brewing Trade Review (London);
- The Brewers' Journal (London);
- The Brewers' Journal (New York);
- Wochenschrift für Brauerei (Berlin);
- Zeitschrift für das gesammte Brauwesen (Munich).
- (P. S.)