1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Buner

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BUNER, a valley on the Peshawar border of the North-West Frontier Province of India. It is a small mountain valley, dotted with villages and divided into seven sub-divisions. The Mora Hills and the Ilam range divide it from Swat, the Sinawar range from Yusafzai, the Guru mountains from the Chamla valley, and the Duma range from the Puran Valley. It is inhabited by the Iliaszai and Malizai divisions of the Pathan tribe of Yusafzais, who are called after their country the Bunerwals. There is no finer race on the north-west frontier of India than the Bunerwals. Simple and austere in their habits, religious and truthful in their ways, hospitable to all who seek shelter amongst them, free from secret assassinations, they are bright examples of the Pathan character at its best. They are a powerful and warlike tribe, numbering 8000 fighting men. The Umbeyla Expedition of 1863 under Sir Neville Chamberlain was occasioned by the Bunerwals siding with the Hindostani Fanatics, who had settled down at Malka in their territory. In the end the Bunerwals were subdued by a force of 9000 British troops, and Malka was destroyed, but they made so fierce a resistance, in particular in their attack upon the “Crag” picket, that the Indian medal with a clasp for “Umbeyla” was granted in 1869 to the survivors of the expedition. The government of India refrained from interfering with the tribe again until the Buner campaign of 1897 under Sir Bindon Blood. Many Bunerwals took part in the attack of the Swatis on the Malakand fort, and a force of 3000 British troops was sent to punish them; but the tribe made only a feeble resistance at the passes into their country, and speedily handed in the arms demanded of them and made complete submission.