1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Calendar

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CALENDAR, so called from the Roman Calends or Kalends, a method of distributing time into certain periods adapted to the purposes of civil life, as hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc.

Sections


TABLE XII.—Epochs, Eras, and Periods.

Name. Christian Date of
Commencement.
Grecian Mundane era 1 Sep. 5598 B.C.
Civil era of Constantinople 1 Sep. 5508   "   
Alexandrian era 29 Aug. 5502   "   
Ecclesiastical era of Antioch 1 Sep. 5492   "   
Julian Period 1 Jan. 4713   "   
Mundane era Oct. 4008   "   
Jewish Mundane era Oct. 3761   "   
Era of Abraham 1 Oct. 2015   "   
Era of the Olympiads 1 July 776   "   
Roman era 24 April 753   "   
Era of Nabonassar 26 Feb. 747   "   
Metonic Cycle 15 July 432   "   
Grecian or Syro-Macedonian era 1 Sep. 312   "   
Tyrian era 19 Oct. 125   "   
Name. Christian Date of
Commencement.
Sidonian era Oct. 110 B.C.
Caesarean era of Antioch 1 Sep. 48   "   
Julian year 1 Jan. 45   "   
Spanish era 1 Jan. 38   "   
Actian era 1 Jan. 30   "   
Augustan era 14 Feb. 27   "   
Vulgar Christian era 1 Jan. 1 A.D.
Destruction of Jerusalem 1 Sep. 69   "   
Era of Maccabees 24 Nov. 166   "   
Era of Diocletian 17 Sep. 284   "   
Era of Ascension 12 Nov. 295   "   
Era of the Armenians 7 July 552   "   
Mahommedan era of the Hegira 16 July 622   "   
Persian era of Yezdegird 16 June 632   "   


For the Revolutionary Calendar see French Revolution ad fin.

The principal works on the calendar are the following:—

  • Clavius, Romani Calendarii a Gregorio XIII. P.M. restituti Explicatio (Rome, 1603).
  • L'Art de vérifier les dates.
  • Lalande, Astronomie tome ii.
  • Traité de la sphère et du calendrier, par M. Revard (Paris, 1816).
  • Delambre, Traité de l'astronomie théorique et pratique, tome iii.
  • Histoire de l'astronomie moderne; Methodus technica brevis, perfacilis, ac perpetua construendi Calendarium Ecclesiasticum, Stylo tam novo quam vetere, pro cunctis Christianis Europae populis, &c., auctore Paulo Tittel (Gottingen, 1816).
  • Formole analitiche pel calcolo delta Pasgua, e correzione di quello di Gauss, con critiche osservazioni sù quanta ha scritto del calendario il Delambri, di Lodovico Ciccolini (Rome, 1817).
  • E.H. Lindo, Jewish Calendar for Sixty-four Years (1838).
  • W.S.B. Woolhouse, Measures, Weights, and Moneys of all Nations (1869).
(T. G.; W. S. B. W.)