1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Camulodunum
CAMULODUNUM, also written Camalodūnum (mod. Colchester, q.v.), a British and Roman town. It was the capital of the British chief Cunobelin and is named on his coins: after his death and the Roman conquest of south Britain, the Romans established (about A.D. 48) a colonia or municipality peopled with discharged legionaries, and intended to serve both as an informal garrison and as a centre of Roman civilization. It was stormed and burnt A.D. 61 in the rising of Boadicea (q.v.), but soon recovered and became one of the chief towns in Roman Britain. Its walls and some other buildings still stand and abundant Roman remains enrich the local museum. The name denotes “the fortress of Camulos,” the Celtic Mars.