1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Chinese Pavillon
CHINESE PAVILLON, Turkish Crescent, Turkish Jingle, or Jingling Johnny (Fr. chapeau chinois; Ger. türkischer Halbmond, Schellenbaum; Ital. cappello chinese), an instrument of percussion of indefinite sonorousness, i.e. not producing definite musical tones. The chapeau chinois was formerly an adjunct in military bands, but never in the orchestra, where an instrument of somewhat similar shape, often confused with it and known as the Glockenspiel (q.v.) is occasionally called into requisition. The Chinese pavillon consists of a pole of about 6 ft. high terminating in a conical metal cap or pavillon, hung with small jingling bells and surmounted by a crescent and a star. Below this pavillon are two or more metal bands forming a fanciful double crescent or squat lyre, likewise furnished with tiny bells. The two points of the crescent are curved over, ending in fanciful animal heads from whose mouths hang low streaming tails of horse-hair. The Chinese pavillon is played by shaking or waving the pole up and down and jingling the bells, a movement which can at best be but a slow one repeated once or at most twice in a bar to punctuate the phrases and add brilliancy to the military music. The Turkish crescent, or “Jingling Johnny,” as it was familiarly called in the British army bands, was introduced by the Janissaries into western Europe. It has fallen into disuse now, having been replaced by the glockenspiel or steel harmonica. Edinburgh University possesses two specimens. In the 18th century at Bartholomew Fair one of the chief bands hired was one well known as playing in London on winter evenings in front of the Spring-Garden coffee house and opposite Wigley’s. This band consisted of a double drum, a Dutch organ (see Barrel-organ), a tambourine, a violin, pipes and the Turkish jingle. (K. S.)
- See Captain C. R. Day, Descriptive Catalogue of Musical Instruments (London, 1891), p. 233.
- See Hone’s Everyday Book, i. 1248.