1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Chlopicki, Gregorz Jozef

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CHLOPICKI, GREGORZ JOZEF (1772–1854), Polish general, was born in March 1772 in Podolia. He was educated at the school of the Basilians at Szarogrod, from which in 1787 he ran away in order to enlist as a volunteer in the Polish army. He was present at all the engagements fought during 1792–1794, especially distinguishing himself at the battle of Raclawice, when he was General Rymkiewicz’s adjutant. On the formation of the Italian legion he joined the second battalion as major, and was publicly complimented by General Oudinot for his extraordinary valour at the storming of Peschiera. He also distinguished himself at the battles of Modena, Busano, Casabianca and Ponto. In 1807 he commanded the first Vistulan regiment, and rendered good service at the battles of Eylau and Friedland. In Spain he obtained the legion of honour and the rank of a French baron for his heroism at the battle of Epila and the storming of Saragossa, and in 1809 was promoted to be general of brigade. In 1812 he accompanied the Grande Armée to Russia, was seriously wounded at Smolensk, and on the reconstruction of the Polish army in 1813 was made a general of division. On his return to Poland in 1814, he entered the Russian army with the rank of a general officer, but a personal insult from the grand duke Constantine resulted in his retiring into private life. He held aloof at first from the Polish national rising of 1830, but at the general request of his countrymen accepted the dictatorship on the 5th of December 1830; on the 23rd of January 1831, however, he resigned in order to fight as a common soldier. At Wavre (Feb. 19) and at Grochow (Feb. 20) he displayed all his old bravery, but was so seriously wounded at the battle of Olszyna that he had to be conveyed to Cracow, near which city he lived in complete retirement till his death in 1854.

See Jozef Maczynski, Life and Death of Joseph Chlopicki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1858); Ignacy Pradzynski, The Four Last Polish Commanders (Pol.) (Posen, 1865).