1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Clough, Anne Jemima

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CLOUGH, ANNE JEMIMA (1820–1892), English educationalist, was born at Liverpool on the 20th of January 1820, the daughter of a cotton merchant. She was the sister of Arthur Hugh Clough, the poet. When two years old she was taken with the rest of the family to Charleston, South Carolina. It was not till 1836 that she returned to England, and though her ambition was to write, she was occupied for the most part in teaching. Her father’s failure in business led her to open a school in 1841. This was carried on until 1846. In 1852, after making some technical studies in London and working at the Borough Road and the Home and Colonial schools, she opened another small school of her own at Ambleside in Westmorland. Giving this up some ten years later, she lived for a time with the widow of her brother Arthur Hugh Clough—who had died in 1861—in order that she might educate his children. Keenly interested in the education of women, she made friends with Miss Emily Davies, Madame Bodichon, Miss Buss and others. After helping to found the North of England council for promoting the higher education of women, she acted as its secretary from 1867 to 1870 and as its president from 1873 to 1874. When it was decided to open a house for the residence of women students at Cambridge, Miss Clough was chosen as its first principal. This hostel, started in Regent Street, Cambridge, in 1871 with five students, and continued at Merton Hall in 1872, led to the building of Newnham Hall, opened in 1875, and to the erection of Newnham College on its present basis in 1880. Miss Clough’s personal charm and high aims, together with the development of Newnham College under her care, led her to be regarded as one of the foremost leaders of the women’s educational movement. She died at Cambridge on the 27th of February 1892. Two portraits of Miss Clough are at Newnham College, one by Sir W. B. Richmond, the other by J. J. Shannon.

See Memoir of Anne Jemima Clough, by Blanche Athena Clough (1897).