1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Cluseret, Gustave Paul
CLUSERET, GUSTAVE PAUL (1823–1900), French soldier and politician, was born at Paris. He was an officer in the garde mobile during the revolution of 1848. He took part in several expeditions in Algeria, joined Garibaldi’s volunteers in 1860, and in 1861 resigned his commission to take part in the Civil War in America. He served under Frémont and McClellan, and rose to the rank of general. Then, joining a band of Irish adventurers, he went secretly to Ireland, and participated in the Fenian insurrection (1866–67). He escaped arrest on the collapse of the movement, but was condemned to death in his absence. On his return to France he proclaimed himself a Socialist, opposed militarism, and became a member of the Association Internationale des travailleurs, a cosmopolitan Socialist organization, known as the “Internationale.” On the proclamation of the Third Republic in 1871 he set to work to organize the social revolution, first at Lyons and afterwards at Marseilles. His energy, his oratorical gifts, and his military experience gave him great influence among the working classes. On the news of the communist rising of the 18th of March 1871 he hastened to Paris, and on the 16th of April was elected a member of the commune. Disagreements with the other communist leaders led to his arrest on the 1st of May, on a false charge of betraying the cause. On the 24th of the same month the occupation of Paris by the Versailles troops restored him to liberty, and he succeeded in escaping from France. He did not return to the country till 1884. In 1888 and 1889 he was returned as a deputy to the chamber by Toulon. He died in 1900. Cluseret published his Mémoires (of the Commune) at Paris in 1887–1888.