1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Cluwer, Philip
CLUWER (Cluver, Cluvier, Cluverius), PHILIP (1580–1623), German geographer and historian, was born at Danzig in 1580. After travelling in Germany and Poland (where he learnt Polish), he began the study of law at Leiden, but he soon turned his attention to history and geography, which were then taught there by Joseph Scaliger. After campaigning in Bohemia and Hungary, suffering imprisonment, and travelling in England, Scotland and France, he finally settled in Holland, where (after 1616) he received a regular pension from Leiden Academy. In 1611 he began to publish his works. He died at Leiden in 1623. His principal writings are: Germania Antiqua (1616), Siciliae Antiquae libri duo, Sardinia et Corsica Antiqua (1619), and the posthumous Italia Antiqua (1624) and Introductio in Universam Geographiam (1629).