1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Connaught, Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of

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1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 6
Connaught, Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of

CONNAUGHT, ARTHUR WILLIAM PATRICK ALBERT, Duke of (1850–), third son and seventh child of Queen Victoria, was born at Buckingham Palace on the 1st of May 1850. Being destined for the army, the young prince was entered at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1866, and gazetted to the Royal Engineers on the 19th of June 1868. In the following November he was transferred to the Royal Artillery, and on the 3rd of August 1869 to the Rifle Brigade. He became captain in 1871, and, transferred to the 7th Hussars in 1874, was promoted major in 1875, and returned to the Rifle Brigade as lieutenant colonel in September 1876. He was promoted colonel and major general in 1880, lieutenant-general in 1889, and general in 1893. He accompanied the expeditionary force to Egypt in 1882, and commanded the Guards brigade at the battle of Tel-el-Kebir. He was mentioned three times in dispatches, received the C.B. and was thanked by parliament. In 1886 the duke went to India and commanded the Bombay army until 1890, when he returned home. He commanded the southern district from 1890 to 1893, and that of Aldershot from 1893 to 1898. On the departure of Lord Roberts for South Africa the duke succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, 9th of January 1900. On attaining his majority in 1871 an annuity of £15,000 was granted to Prince Arthur by parliament, and in 1874 he was created duke of Connaught and Strathearn and earl of Sussex. On the 13th of March 1879 he married Princess Louise Marguerite of Prussia, third daughter of Prince Frederick Charles, and received an additional annuity of £10,000. The duke and duchess represented Queen Victoria at the coronation of the tsar Nicholas II. at Moscow in 1896. On the reorganization of the war office and the higher commands in 1904, the duke was appointed to the new office of inspector-general to the forces, from which he retired in 1907, being then given the new post of commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, stationed at Malta, which he held until 1909.