1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Constance, Lake of

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CONSTANCE, LAKE OF (called by the Romans Lacus Brigantinus or lake of Bregenz, and now usually named in German Bodensee, as well as the “Swabian Sea”), the most extensive sheet of water in the Alpine region, after the Lake of Geneva. It is situated on the north-east frontier of Switzerland, and is formed by the Rhine. Its shape is oblong, while at its north-western extremity it divides into two arms, the Untersee (from Constance to Stein-am-Rhein) and the Überlingersee (running up to Ludwigshafen). The length of the lake from Bregenz to Stein-am-Rhein is 46½ m., while that from Bregenz to Ludwigshafen is but 40 m. Its surface is 1309 ft. above sea-level, the greatest width is 10½ m., and the greatest depth 827 ft. The area of the lake is 204¾ sq. m., of which 81¼ sq. m. have belonged to Switzerland since 1803, the canton of Thurgau holding 59¾ sq. m. and that of St Gall 21½ sq. m. Austria has held Bregenz, at the south-eastern angle of the lake, since 1451, while the north end of the lake belongs to Baden (Constance held since 1805), and bits of its eastern shore form part of Württemberg (Friedrichshafen, formerly called Buchhorn, since 1810) and of Bavaria (Lindau since 1805). The first steamer was placed on its waters in 1824. Numerous remains of lake-dwellings have been found on the shores of this lake (see E. von Tröltsch, Die Pfahlbauten des Bodenseegebietes, Stuttgart, 1902).  (W. A. B. C.)