1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Cramer, Johann Baptist
CRAMER, JOHANN BAPTIST (1771-1858), English musician, of German extraction, was born in Mannheim, on the 24th of February 1771. He was the son of Wilhelm Cramer (1743-1799), a famous London violinist and musical conductor, one of a numerous family who were identified with the progress of music during the 18th and 10th centuries. Johann Baptist was brought to London as a child, and it was in London that the greater part of his musical efforts was exercised. From 1782 to 1784 he studied the pianoforte under Muzio Clementi, and soon became known as a professional pianist both in London and on the continent; he enjoyed a world-wide reputation, and was particularly appreciated by Beethoven. He died in London on the 16th of April 1858. Apart from his pianoforte-playing Cramer is important as a composer, and as principal founder in 1824 of the London music-publishing house of Cramer & Co. He wrote a number of sonatas, &c., for pianoforte, and other compositions; but his Études is the work by which he lives as a composer. These “ studies ” have appeared in numerous editions, from 1810 onwards, and became the staple pieces in the training of pianists.