1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Eburācum

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EBURĀCUM, or Eborācum (probably a later variant), the Roman name of York (q.v.) in England. Established about A.D. 75-80 as fortress of the Ninth legion and garrisoned (after the annihilation of that legion about A.D. 118) by the Sixth legion, it developed outside its walls a town of civil life, which later obtained Roman municipal rank and in the 4th century was the seat of a Christian bishop. The fortress and town were separated by the Ouse. On the left bank, where the minster stands, was the fortress, of which the walls can still be partly traced, and one corner (the so-called Multangular Tower) survives. The municipality occupied the right bank near the present railway station. The place was important for its garrison and as an administrative centre, and the town itself was prosperous, though probably never very large. The name is preserved in the abbreviated form Ebor in the official name of the archbishop of York, but the philological connexion between Eboracum and the modern name York is doubtful and has probably been complicated by Danish influence.  (F. J. H.)