1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Frontinus, Sextus Julius

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FRONTINUS, SEXTUS JULIUS (c. A.D. 40-103), Roman soldier and author. In 70 he was city praetor, and five years later was sent into Britain to succeed Petilius Cerealis as governor of that island. He subdued the Silures, and held the other native tribes in check till he was superseded by Agricola (78). In 97 he was appointed superintendant of the aqueducts (curator aquarum) at Rome, an office only conferred upon persons of very high standing. He was also a member of the college of augurs. His chief work is De aquis urbis Romae, in two books, containing a history and description of the water-supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance, and other matters of importance in the history of architecture. Frontinns also wrote a theoretical treatise on military science (De re militari) which is lost. His Strategematlcon libri iii. is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history, for the use of officers; a fourth book, the plan and style of which is different from the rest (more stress is laid on the moral aspects of war, e.g. discipline), is the work of another writer (best edition by G. Gundermann, 1888). Extracts from a treatise on land- surveying ascribed to Frontinus are preserved in Lach?ann's Gromatici veteres (1848).

A valuable edition of the De aquis (text and translation) has been published by C. Herschel (Boston, Mass., 1899). It contains numer- ous illustrations; maps of the routes of the ancient aqueducts and the city of Rome in the time of Frontinus; a photographic reproduction of the only MS. (the Monte Cassino); several ex- planatory chapters, and a concise. bibliography, in which special reference is made to P. d Tissot, Etude sur la condition des agri- mensores (x879). There is a complete edition of the works by A. Dederich (I855), and an English translation of the Strategematica by R. Scott (18).