1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Glatz

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GLATZ (Slav. Kladsko), a fortified town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, in a narrow valley on the left bank of the Neisse, not far from the Austrian frontier, 58 m. S.W. from Breslau by rail. Pop. (1905) 16,051. The town with its narrow streets winds up the fortified hill which is crowned by the old citadel. Across the river, on the Schäferberg, lies a more modern fortress built by the Prussians about 1750. Before the town on both banks of the river there is a fortified camp by which bombardment from the neighbouring heights can be hindered and which affords accommodation for 10,000 men. The inner ceinture of walls was razed in 1891 and their site is now occupied by new streets. There are a Lutheran and two Roman Catholic churches, one of which, the parish church, contains the monuments of seven Silesian dukes. Among the other buildings the principal are the Royal Catholic gymnasium and the military hospital. The industries include machine shops, breweries, and the manufacture of spirits, linen, damask, cloth, hosiery, beads and leather.

Glatz existed as early as the 10th century, and received German settlers about 1250. It was besieged several times during the Thirty Years’ War and during the Seven Years’ War and came into the possession of Prussia in 1742. In 1821 and 1883 great devastation was caused here by floods. The county of Glatz was long contended for by the kingdoms of Poland and of Bohemia. Eventually it became part of the latter country, and in 1534 was sold to the house of Habsburg, from whom it was taken by Frederick the Great during his attack on Silesia.

See Ludwig, Die Grafschaft Glatz in Wort und Bild (Breslau, 1897); Kutzen, Die Grafschaft Glatz (Glogau, 1873); and Geschichtsquellen der Grafschaft Glatz, edited by F. Volkmer and Hohaus (1883–1891).