1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Grafe, Heinrich

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GRAFE, HEINRICH (1802–1868), German educationist, was born at Buttstädt in Saxe-Weimar on the 3rd of May 1802. He studied mathematics and theology at ]ena, and in 1823 obtained a curacy in the town church of Weimar. He was transferred to Jena as rector of the town school in 1825; in 1840 he was also appointed extraordinary professor of the science of education (Pädagogik) in that university; and in 1842 became head of the Bürgerschule (middle class school) in Cassel. After reorganizing the schools of the town, he became director of the new Realschule in 1843; and, devoting himself to the interests of educational reform in electoral Hesse, he became in 1849 a member of the school commission, and also entered the house of representatives, where he made himself somewhat formidable as an agitator. In 1852 for having been implicated in the September riots and in the movement against the unpopular minister Hassenpflug, who had dissolved the school commission, he was condemned to three years' imprisonment, a sentence afterwards reduced to one of twelve months. On his release he withdrew to Geneva, where he engaged in educational work till 1855, when he was appointed director of the school of industry at Bremen. He died in that city on the 21st of July 1868.

Besides being the author of many text-books and occasional papers on educational subjects, he wrote Das Rechisverhaltnis der Volksschule von innen und aussen (1829); Die Schulreform (1834); Schule und Unterricht (1839); Allgemeine Pädagogik (1345); Die deutsche Volksschule (1847). Together with Naumann, he also edited the Archiv fur das praktische Volksschulwesen (1828–1835).