1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Hajj

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HAJJ or Hadj, the Arabic word, meaning literally a “setting out,” for the greater pilgrimage of Mahommedans to Mecca, which takes place from the 8th to the 10th of the twelfth month of the Mahommedan year; the lesser pilgrimage, called umrah or omra, may be made to the mosque at Mecca at any time other than that of the hajj proper, and is also a meritorious act. The term hajji or hadji is given to those who have performed the greater pilgrimage. The word hajj is sometimes loosely used of any Mahommedan pilgrimage to a sacred place or shrine, and is also applied to the pilgrimages of Christians of the East to the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem (see Mecca; Mahommedan Religion).