1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Haparanda
HAPARANDA (Finnish Haaparanta, “Aspen Shore”), a town of Sweden in the district (län) of Norbotten, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. Pop. (1900) 1568. It lies about 11 m. from the mouth of the Torne river, on the frontier with Russia (Finland), opposite the town of Torneå which has belonged to Russia since 1809. The towns are divided by a marshy channel, formerly the bed of the Torne, but the main stream is now east of the Russian town. Haparanda was founded in 1812, and at first bore the name of Karljohannstad. It received its municipal constitution in 1842. Shipbuilding is prosecuted. Sea-going vessels load and unload at Salmio, 7 m. from Haparanda. Since 1859 the town has been the seat of an important meteorological station. Annual mean temperature, 32.4° Fahr.; February 10.5°; July 58.8°. Rainfall, 16.5 in. annually. Up the Torne valley (54 m.) is the hill Avasaxa, whither pilgrimages were formerly made in order to stand in the light of the sun at midnight on St John’s day (June 24).