1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Harrowby, Dudley Ryder, 1st Earl of

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HARROWBY, DUDLEY RYDER, 1st Earl of (1762–1847), the eldest son of Nathaniel Ryder, 1st Baron Harrowby (1735–1803), was born in London on the 22nd of December 1762. His grandfather Sir Dudley Ryder (1691–1756) became a member of parliament and solicitor-general owing to the favour of Sir Robert Walpole in 1733; in 1737 he was appointed attorney-general and three years later he was knighted; in 1754 he was made lord chief justice of the king’s bench and a privy councillor, the patent creating him a peer having been just signed by the king, but not passed, when he died on the 25th of May 1756. His only son Nathaniel, who was member of parliament for Tiverton for twenty years, was created Baron Harrowby in 1776. Educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, Dudley Ryder became member of parliament for Tiverton in 1784 and under-secretary for foreign affairs in 1789. In 1791 he was appointed paymaster of the forces and vice-president of the board of trade, but he resigned the positions and also that of treasurer of the navy when he succeeded to his father’s barony in June 1803. In 1804 he was secretary of state for foreign affairs and in 1805 chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster under his intimate friend William Pitt; in the latter year he was sent on a special and important mission to the emperors of Austria and Russia and the king of Prussia, and for the long period between 1812 and 1827 he was lord president of the council. After Canning’s death in 1827 he refused to serve George IV. as prime minister and he never held office again, although he continued to take part in politics, being especially prominent during the deadlock which preceded the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. Harrowby’s long association with the Tories did not prevent him from assisting to remove the disabilities of Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters, or from supporting the movement for electoral reform; he was also in favour of the emancipation of the slaves. The earl died at his Staffordshire residence, Sandon Hall, on the 26th of December 1847, being, as Charles Greville says, “the last of his generation and of the colleagues of Mr Pitt, the sole survivor of those stirring times and mighty contests.”

Harrowby’s eldest son, Dudley Ryder, 2nd earl (1798–1882), was born in London on the 19th of May 1798, his mother being Susan (d. 1838), daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, marquess of Stafford, a lady of exceptional attainments. As Viscount Sandon he became member of parliament for Tiverton in 1819, in 1827 he was appointed a lord of the admiralty, and in 1830 secretary to the India board. From 1831 to 1847 Sandon represented Liverpool in the House of Commons. For a long time he was out of office, but in 1855, eight years after he had become earl of Harrowby, he was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster by Lord Palmerston; in a few months he was transferred to the office of lord privy seal, a position which he resigned in 1857. He was chairman of the Maynooth commission and a member of other important royal commissions, and was among the most stalwart and prominent defenders of the established church. He died at Sandon on the 19th of November 1882. His successor was his eldest son, Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder (1831–1900), vice-president of the council from 1874 to 1878, president of the board of trade from 1878 to 1880, and lord privy seal in 1885 and 1886. He died without sons on the 26th of March 1900, and was succeeded by his brother, Henry Dudley Ryder (1836–1900), whose son, John Herbert Dudley Ryder (b. 1864), became 5th earl of Harrowby.