1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Hawley, Henry
HAWLEY, HENRY (c 1679-1759), British lieut -general, entered the army, it is said, in 1694 He saw service in the War of Spanish Succession as a captain of Erle's (the 19th) foot After Almanza he returned to England, and a few years later had become lieut.-colonel of the 19th. With this regiment he served at Sheriffmuir in 1715, where he was wounded. After this for some years he served in the United Kingdom, obtaining promotion in the usual course, and in 1730 he arrived at the grade of major general. Four years later he accompanied (aeeige ll. and Stair to Germany, and, as a general officer of cavalry under Sir John Cope, was present at Dettingen. Becoming l1eut -general somewhat later, he was second-in-command of the cavalry at Fontenoy, and on the 20th of December 1745 became commander-in-chief in Scotland Less than a month later Hawley suffered a severe defeat at Falkirk at the hands of the Highland insurgents. This, however, did not cost him his command, for the duke of Cumberland, who was soon afterwards sent north, was captain-general. Under Cumberland's orders Hawley led the cavalry in the campaign of Culloden, and at that battle his dragoons distinguished themselves by their ruthless butchery of the fugitive rebels. After the end of the “ Forty-Fn e ” he accompanied Cumberland to the Low Countries and led the allied cavalry at Lauffeld (Val). He ended his career as governor of Portsmouth and dled at that place in 1759. lames Wolfe, his brigade-n1ajor, w rote of General Hawley in no Hattering terms “ The troops dread his severity, hate the man and hold his military knowledge in contempt, ” he wrote. But, whether it be true or false that he was the natural son of George II., Hawley was alw avs treated with the greatest favour by that king and by his son the duke of Cumberland.