1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Horn, Philip de Montmorency, Count of

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HORN, PHILIP DE MONTMORENCY, Count of (1518–1568), a man of illustrious descent and great possessions in the Netherlands, became in succession under Charles V. and Philip II. stadtholder of Gelderland, admiral of Flanders and knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1559 he commanded the stately fleet which conveyed Philip II. from the Netherlands to Spain, and he remained at the Spanish court till 1563. On his return he placed himself with the prince of Orange and Count Egmont at the head of the party which opposed the policy of Cardinal Granvella. When Granvella retired the three great nobles continued to resist the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition and of Spanish despotic rule into the Netherlands. But though Philip appeared for a time to give way, he had made up his mind to visit the opponents of his policy with ruthless punishment. The regent, Margaret, duchess of Parma, was replaced by the duke of Alva, who entered the Netherlands at the head of a veteran army and at once began to crush all opposition with a merciless hand. Orange fled from the country, but Egmont and Horn, despite his warning, decided to remain and face the storm. They were both seized, tried and condemned as traitors, and were executed on the 5th of June 1568 in the great square before the town hall at Brussels.

See biographical notices in A. J. van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem, 1851–1879); J. Kok, Vaderlandsch Woordenboek (Amsterdam, 1785–1799); also bibliography to chaps. vi. vii. and xix. in Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii. pp. 798-809 (1904).