1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Ibn Hauḳal
IBN HAUḲAL, strictly Ibn Hauqal, a 10th century Arabian geographer. Nothing is known of his life. His work on geography, written in 977, is only a revision and extension of the Masālik ul-Mamālik of al-Iṣṭakhrī, who wrote in 951. This itself was a revised edition of the Kitāb ul-Ashkāl or Ṣuwar ul-Aqālim of Abū Zaid ul-Balkhī, who wrote about 921. Ibn Hauḳal’s work was published by M. J. de Goeje (Leiden, 1873). An anonymous epitome of the book was written in 1233.
See M. J. de Goeje, “Die Iṣṭahrī–Balhī Frage,” in the Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, xxv. 42 sqq.