1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Kalckreuth, Friedrich Adolf, Count von

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KALCKREUTH (or Kalkreuth), FRIEDRICH ADOLF, Count von (1737–1818), Prussian soldier, entered the regiment of Gardes du Corps in 1752, and in 1758 was adjutant or aide de camp to Frederick the Great’s brother, Prince Henry, with whom he served throughout the later stages of the Seven Years’ War. He won special distinction at the battle of Freiberg (Sept. 29, 1762), for which Frederick promoted him major. Personal differences with Prince Henry severed their connexion in 1766, and for many years Kalckreuth lived in comparative retirement. But he made the campaign of the War of the Bavarian Succession as a colonel, and on the accession of Frederick William II. was restored to favour. He greatly distinguished himself as a major-general in the invasion of Holland in 1787, and by 1792 had become count and lieutenant-general. Under Brunswick he took a conspicuous part in the campaign of Valmy in 1792, the siege and capture of Mainz in 1793, and the battle of Kaiserslautern in 1794. In the campaigns against Napoleon in 1806 he played a marked part for good or evil, both at Auerstädt and in the miserable retreat of the beaten Prussians. In 1807 he defended Danzig for 78 days against the French under Marshal Lefebvre, with far greater skill and energy than he had shown in the previous year. He was promoted field marshal soon afterwards, and conducted many of the negotiations at Tilsit. He died as governor of Berlin in 1818.

The Dictées du Feldmaréchal Kalckreuth were published by his son (Paris, 1844).