1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Kalgan

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KALGAN (Chang-Chia K’ow), a city of China, in the province of Chih-li, with a population estimated at from 70,000 to 100,000. It lies in the line of the Great Wall, 122 m. by rail N.W. of Peking, commanding an important pass between China and Mongolia. Its position is stated as in 40° 50′ N. and 114° 54′ E., and its height above the sea as 2810 ft. The valley amid the mountains in which it is situated is under excellent cultivation, and thickly studded with villages. Kalgan consists of a walled town or fortress and suburbs 3 m. long. The streets are wide, and excellent shops are abundant; but the ordinary houses have an unusual appearance, from the fact that they are mostly roofed with earth and become covered with green-sward. Large quantities of soda are manufactured; and the town is the seat of a very extensive transit trade. In October 1909 it was connected by railway with Peking. In early autumn long lines of camels come in from all quarters for the conveyance of the tea-chests from Kalgan to Kiakhta; and each caravan usually makes three journeys in the winter. Some Russian merchants have permanent residences and warehouses just outside the gate. On the way to Peking the road passes over a beautiful bridge of seven arches, ornamented with marble figures of animals. The name Kalgan is Mongolian, and means a barrier or “gate-beam.”