1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Kalisch, Marcus

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KALISCH, MARCUS (or Maurice) (1828–1885), Jewish scholar, was born in Pomerania in 1828, and died in England 1885. He was one of the pioneers of the critical study of the Old Testament in England. At one time he was secretary to the Chief Rabbi; in 1853 he became tutor in the Rothschild family and enjoyed leisure to produce his commentaries and other works. The first instalment of his commentary on the Pentateuch was Exodus (1855); this was followed by Genesis (1858) and Leviticus in two parts (1867–1872). Kalisch wrote before the publication of Wellhausen’s works, and anticipated him in some important points. Besides these works, Kalisch published in 1877–1878 two volumes of Bible studies (on Balaam and Jonah). He was also author of a once popular Hebrew grammar in two volumes (1862–1863). In 1880 he published Path and Goal, a brilliant discussion of human destiny. His commentaries are of permanent value, not only because of the author’s originality, but also because of his erudition. No other works in English contain such full citations of earlier literature.  (I. A.)