1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Malachowski, Stanislaw

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MALACHOWSKI, STANISLAW (1736–1809), Polish statesman, the younger son of Stanislaw Malachowski, palatine of Posen, the companion in arms of Sobieski. From his youth Malachowski laboured zealously for the good of his country, and as president of the royal court of justice won the honourable title of the “Polish Aristides.” He was first elected a deputy to the Coronation Diet of 1764, and the great Four Years’ Diet unanimously elected him its speaker at the beginning of its session in 1788. Accurately gauging the situation, Malachowski speedily gathered round him all those who were striving to uphold the falling republic and warmly supported every promising project of reform. He was one of the framers of the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791, exceeding in liberality all his colleagues and advocating the extension of the franchise to the towns and the emancipation of the serfs. He was the first to enter his name as a citizen of Warsaw in the civic register and to open negotiations with his own peasantry for their complete liberation. Disappointed in his hopes by the overthrow of the constitution, he resigned office and left the country in 1792, going first to Italy and subsequently to his estates in Galicia, where he was imprisoned for a time on a false suspicion of conspiracy. In 1807 Malachowski was placed at the head of the executive committee appointed at Warsaw after its evacuation by the Prussians, and when the grand duchy of Warsaw was created Malachowski became president of the senate under King Frederick Augustus of Saxony. In the negotiations with the Austrian government concerning the Galician salt-mines Malachowski came to the assistance of the depleted treasury by hypothecating all his estates as an additional guarantee. In 1809 he died at Warsaw. His death was regarded as a public calamity, and multitudes followed his remains to their last resting-place in the Church of the Holy Cross. In all the other towns of the grand duchy funeral services were held simultaneously as a tribute of the respect and gratitude of the Polish nation.

See August Sokolowski, Illustrated History of Poland (Pol.), vol. iv. (Vienna, 1900); Life and Memoirs of S. Malachowski, edited by Lucyan Siemienski (Pol; Cracow, 1853).  (R. N. B.)