1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Malouet, Pierre Victor, Baron
MALOUET, PIERRE VICTOR, Baron (1740–1814), French publicist and politician, was born at Riom (Puy-de-Dôme) on the 11th of February 1740, the son of a lawyer. He entered the civil service and was employed successively at the French embassy in Lisbon, in the administrative department of the duc de Broglie’s army, as commissary in San Domingo from 1767–1774, and, after his return to France, as commissary-general of the marine. In 1776 he was entrusted to carry out plans of colonization in French Guiana, but was superseded in 1779. On his return to France he was well received at court, and the execution of his plans in Guiana was assured. He became intendant of the port of Toulon, and in 1789 was returned to the states-general, where he soon became well known as a defender of the monarchical principle. He emigrated to England in September, 1792, but shortly afterwards sought in vain permission to return to assist in the defence of Louis XVI. His name was erased from the list of emigrants in 1801 by Napoleon, who restored him to his position in the service and sent him to Antwerp as commissioner-general and maritime prefect to superintend the erection of defence works, and the creation of a fleet. He entered the council of state in 1810, but, having offended the emperor by his plainness of speech, he was disgraced in 1812. At the Restoration, Louis XVIII. made him minister of marine; and he died on the 7th of September 1814.
The most important documents for his domestic and colonial policy are a Collection de ses opinions à l’Assemblée Nationale (3 vols., 1791–1792); and Collection de mémoires et correspondances officielles sur l’administration des colonies et notamment sur la Guiane française et hollandaise (5 vols., 1802).