1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Menander (dramatist)

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MENANDER (342–291 B.C.), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New comedy, was born at Athens. He was the son of well-to-do parents; his father Diopeithes is identified by some with the Athenian general and governor of the Thracian Chersonese known from the speech of Demosthenes De Chersoneso. He doubtless derived his taste for the comic drama from his uncle Alexis (q.v.). He was the friend and associate, if not the pupil, of Theophrastus, and was on intimate terms with Demetrius of Phalerum. He also enjoyed the patronage of Ptolemy Soter, the son of Lagus, who invited him to his court. But Menander, preferring independence and the company of his mistress Glycera in his villa in the Peiraeus, refused. According to the note of a scholiast on the Ibis of Ovid, he was drowned while bathing; his countrymen built him a tomb on the road leading to Athens, where it was seen by Pausanias. A well-known statue in the Vatican, formerly thought to represent Marius, is now generally supposed to be Menander (although some distinguished archaeologists dispute this), and has been identified with his statue in the theatre at Athens, also mentioned by Pausanias.

Menander was the author of more than a hundred comedies, but only gained the prize eight times. His rival in dramatic art and also in the affections of Glycera was Philemon (q.v.), who appears to have been more popular. Menander, however, believed himself to be the better dramatist, and, according to Aulus Gellius, used to ask Philemon: “Don't you feel ashamed whenever you gain a victory over me?” According to Caecilius of Calacte (Porphyry in Eusebius, Praep. evan. x. 3, 13) he was guilty of plagiarism, his Δεισιδαίμων being taken bodily from the Οἰωνιστής of Antiphanes. But, although he attained only moderate success during his lifetime, he subsequently became the favourite writer of antiquity. Copies of his plays were known to Suïdas and Eustathius (10th and 11th centuries), and twenty-three of them, with commentary by Psellus, were said to have been in existence at Constantinople in the 16th century. He is praised by Plutarch (Comparison of Menander and Aristophanes) and Quintilian (Instit. x. l. 69), who accepted the tradition that he was the author of the speeches published under the name of the Attic orator Charisius. A great admirer and imitator of Euripides, he resembles him in his keen observation of practical life, his analysis of the emotions, and his fondness for moral maxims, many of which have become proverbial: “The property of friends is common,” “Whom the gods love die young,” “Evil communications corrupt good manners" (from the Thaïs, quoted in 1 Cor. xv. 33). These maxims (chiefly monostichs) were afterwards collected, and, with additions from other sources, were edited as Μενάνδρου γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι, a kind of moral textbook for the use of schools.

Menander found many Roman imitators. The Eunuchus, Andria, Heautontimorumenos and Adelphi of Terence (called by Caesar “dimidiatus Menander”) were avowedly taken from Menander, but some of them appear to be adaptations and combinations of more than one play; thus, in the Andria were combined Menander's Ἀνδρία and Περινθία, in the Eunuchus the Εὐνοῦχος and Κόλαξ, while the Adelphi was compiled partly from Menander and partly from Diphilus. The original of Terence's Hecyra (as of the Phormio) is generally supposed to be, not Menander, but Apollodorus of Carystus. The Bacchides and Stichus of Plautus were probably based upon Menander's Δὶς Ἐξαπατῶν and Φιλάδελφοι, but the Poenulus does not seem to be from the Καρχηδόνιος, nor the Mostellaria from the Φάσμα, in spite of the similarity of titles. Caecilius Statius, Luscius Lavinius, Turpilius and Atilius also imitated Menander. He was further credited with the authorship of some epigrams of doubtful authenticity; the letters addressed to Ptolemy Soter and the discourses in prose on various subjects mentioned by Suïdas are probably spurious.

Till the end of the 19th century, all that was known of Menander were the fragments collected by A. Meineke (1855) and T. Kock, Comicorum atticorum fragmenta, iii. (1888). They consist of some 1650 verses or parts of verses, in addition to a considerable number of words quoted expressly as from Menander by the old lexicographers. From 1897 to 1907 papyri were discovered in different parts of Egypt, containing fragments of considerable length, amounting to some 1400 lines. In 1897, about eighty lines of the Γεωργός; in 1899, fifty lines of the Περικειρομένη; in 1903, one hundred lines (half in a very mutilated condition) from the Κόλαξ; in 1906, two hundred lines from the middle of the Περικειρομένη, the part previously discovered containing the dénouement; five hundred lines from the Ἐπιτρέποντες, generally well preserved; sixty-three lines (the prologue, list of characters, and the first scene), from the Ἥρως; three hundred and forty lines from the Σαμία (the identification of the two last plays is not considered absolutely certain); and twenty lines from an unknown comedy. Subsequently, part of a third copy of the Περικειρομένη was found in Egypt, some one hundred and forty lines, half of which were already known, while the remainder were new (Abhandlungen der königl.-sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Leipzig), 1908.

It is doubtful whether these fragments, which are of sufficient length to afford a basis for the consideration of the merits of Menander as a writer of comedies, justify the great reputation enjoyed by him in ancient times. With the exception of a scene in the Ἐπιτρέποντες, which would appeal to the litigious Athenians, they contain little that is witty or humorous; there is little variety in the characters, the situations are conventional, and the plots, not of a highly edifying character, are lacking in originality. Menander's chief excellence's seem to be facility of language, accurate portrayal of manners, and naturalness of the sentiments which he puts into the mouth of his dramatis personae. It is remarkable that the maxims, which form the chief part of the earlier collections of fragments, are few in the later.

On Menander generally see monographs by C. Benoît (1854) and G. Guizot (1855); J. Geffcken, Studia zu Menander (1898); H. Lübke, Menander und seine Kunst (1892); J. Denis, La Comédie grecque (1886), vol. ii.; H. Weil, Études sur l’antiquité grecque (1900). Editions of the fragments: Γεωργός, by J. Nicole, with translation and notes (1898) and by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, with revised text and translation (1898); the Ἥρως, Ἐπιτρέποντες, Περικειρομένη, Σαμία, by G. Lefebvre and M. Croiset, with introduction, notes and translation (Cairo, 1907); J. van Leeuwen, with Latin notes (2nd ed., 1908); L. Bodin and P. Mazon, Extraits de Ménandre (Samia and Epitrepontes, 1908); E. Croiset, L’Arbitrage, critical ed. and translation (1908); C. Robert, Der neue Menander (text reconstructed, 1908); Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, “Der Menander von Kairo” in Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum (1908), pp. 34–62; German trans. by C. Robert, Szenen aus Menander (1908); English by Unus Multorum (1909). See also Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, “Der Landmann des Menandros” in Neue Jahrbücher (1899), p. 513; C. Dziatzko, “Der Inhalt des Georgos von Menander,” in Rhein. Mus. liv. 497, lv. 104; F. Leo, “Der Neue Menander” in Hermes, xliii. 120; E. Capps, “The Plot of Menander's Epitrepontes” in Amer. Journ. of Philology (1908), p. 410; A. Kretschmar, De Menandri reliquiis nuper repertis (1906); F. G. Kenyon in Quarterly Review (April, 1908); The Times Literary Supplement (Sept. 20, 1907); Athenaeum (Oct. 23, 1897; Aug. 1, 1908; Oct. 24, 1908); and list of articles in periodicals in Van Leeuwen's edition.  (J. H. F.)