1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Palanquin
PALANQUIN (pronounced palankeen, a form in which it is sometimes spelled), a covered litter used in India and other Eastern countries. It is usually some eight feet long by four feet in width and depth, fitted with movable blinds or shutters, and slung on poles carried by four bearers. Indian and Chinese women of rank always travelled in palanquim, and they were largely used by European residents in India before the railways. The norimono of Japan and the kiaotsu of China differ from the Indian palanquin only in the method of attaching the poles to the body of the conveyance. The word came into European use through Port. palanquim, which represents an East Indian word seen in several forms, e.g. Malay and Javanese palangki, Hindostani palki, Pali pallanko, &c., all in the sense of litter, couch, bed. The Sansk. paryanka, couch, bed, the source of all these words, is derived from pari, round, about, and anka, hook. The New English Dictionary points out the curious resemblance of these words with the Latin use of phalanga (Gr. φάλαγέ) for a bearing or carrying pole, whence the Span. palanca and palanquino, a bearer.