1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Querétaro-Arteaga
QUERÉTARO-ARTEAGA, a central state of Mexico, bounded N. by San Luis Potosí, E. by Hidalgo, S.E. by the state of Mexico, S. by Michoacan and W. by Guanajuato; area, 3556 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 232,389, largely Indian. The state belongs to the elevated plateau region, with its semi-arid conditions. The N. part of the state is traversed from E. to W. by the wooded Sierra Gorda, whose spurs reach southward to the central districts. The central and S. parts are covered by plains, broken by low hills. The rivers are small and flow chiefly to the San Juan, a part of the Panuco drainage basin. There are some small lakes and swamps and a number of mineral springs. Sugar, cotton, Indian corn, beans and considerable quantities of wheat are grown, but agriculture is largely hampered by the uncertainty of the rainfall. The chief wealth of the state is in its mines. Silver, gold, copper, mercury, lead, tin, antimony and precious stones are found, in some cases in very rich deposits. The richest mining districts are those of Cadereyta and Tolimán, where there are metallurgical works for the reduction of ores. The Mexican Central and Mexican National railways cross the S. end of the state and afford transportation facilities for the agricultural districts, but the mining districts of the N. are still dependent upon old methods. The capital of the state is the historic city of Querétaro (q.v.), and other important towns, with their populations in 1900, are: San Juan del Rio (8124), Landa (about 7000), Ahuacatlan (5929 in 1895), Jalpan (about 6000), and Tolimán, celebrated for its opals.