1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Quesnay, François

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QUESNAY, FRANÇOIS (1694-1774), French economist, was born at Mérey, near Paris, on the 4th of June 1694, the son of an advocate and small landed proprietor. Apprenticed at the age of sixteen to a surgeon, he soon went to Paris, studied medicine and surgery there, and, having qualified as a master surgeon, settled down to practice at Mantes. In 1737 he was appointed perpetual secretary of the academy of surgery founded by Francois la Peyronie, and became surgeon in ordinary, to the king. In 1744 he graduated as a doctor of medicine; he became physician in ordinary to the king, and afterwards his first consulting physician, and was installed in the palace of Versailles. His apartments were on the entresol, whence the Réunions de fentresol received their name. Louis XV. esteemed Quesnay much, and used to call him his thinker; when he ennobled him he gave him for arms three flowers of the pansy (pensée), with the motto Propter excogitalionem menzfis. He now devoted himself principally to economic studies. taking no part in the court intrigues which were perpetually going on around him. About the year 1750 he became acquainted with lean C. M. V. de Gournay (1712-1759), who was also an earnest inquirer in the economic field; and round these two distinguished men was gradually formed the philosophic sect of the Economistes, or, as for distinction's sake they were afterwards called, the Physiacrates. The most remarkable men in this group of disciples were the elder Mirabeau (author of L'Ami des hommes, 1756-60, and Philosophie rurale, 1763), Nicolas Baudeau (lrziroduclzon li la philosophies économique, 1771), G. F. Le Trosne (De Vordre social, 1777), André Morellet (best known by his controversy with Galiani on the freedom of the corn trade), Mercier Lariviére and Dupont de Nemours. Adam Smith, during his stay on the continent with the young duke of Buccleuch in 1764-66, spent some time in Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Quesnay and some of his followers; he paid a high tribute to their scientific services in his Wealth of Nations. Quesnay died on the 16th of December 1774, having lived long enough to see his great pupil, Turgot, in office as minister of finance. He had married in 1718, and had a son and a daughter; his grandson by the former was a member of the first Legislative Assembly.

The publications in which Quesnay expounded his system were the following:-two articles, on “ Fermiers" and on “ Grains, ” in the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D'Alembert (1756, 1757); a discourse on the law of nature in the Physiocratie of Dupont de Nemours (1768); Maximes générales de gouvernernent économique d'un royaume agricole (1758), and the simultaneously published Tableau économiquefwec son explication, on extrait des economies royales de Sully (with the celebrated motto, “ Pauvres paysans, pauvre royaume; pauvre royaume, pauvre roi ); Dialogue sur le commerce et les travaux des artisans; and other minor pieces. The Tableau économique, though on account of its dryness and abstract form it met with little general favour, may be considered the principal manifesto of the school. It was regarded by the followers of Quesnay as entitled to a place amongst 'the foremost products of human wisdom, and is named by the elder Mirabeau, in a passage quoted by Adam Smith, as one of the three great inventions which have contributed most to the stability of political societies, the other two being those of writing and of money. Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the (productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, an the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order. It follows from Quesnay's theoretic views that the one thing deserving the solicitude of the practical economist and the statesman is the increase of the net product; and he infers also what Smith afterwards affirmed, on not quite the same ground, that the interest of the landowner is “ strictly and indissolubly connected with the general interest of the society.” A small édition de luxe of this work, with other pieces, was printed in 1758 in the palace of Versailles under the king's immediate supervision, some of the sheets, it is said, having been pulled by the royal hand. Already in 1767 the book had disappeared from circulation, and no copy of it is now procurable; but the substance of it has been preserved in the Ami des hommes of Mirabeau, and the Physiocratie of Dupont de Nemours.

His economic wntings are collected in the 2nd vol. of the Principaux économistes, published by Guillaumin, Paris, with preface and notes by Eugene Daire; also his CEuvres économiques et philosophiques were collected with an introduction and note by Aug. Oncken (Frankfort, 1888); a facsimile reprint of the Tableau économique, from the original MS., was published by the British Economic Association (London, 1895). His other writings were the article “ Evidence " in the Encyclopédie, and Recherches sur Févidence des verités géométriques, with a Projet de nouoeaux éléments de géométrie, 1773. Quesnay s Eloge was pronounced in the Academy of Sciences by Grandjcan de F ouchy (see the Reeueil of that Academy, 1774, p. 134). See also F. ]. Marmontel, Mémoires; Mémoires de Mme. du Hausset; H. Higgs, The Physiocrats (London, 1897).