1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Saltillo

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SALTILLO, a city and the capital of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, about 615 m. by rail N. by W. of the city of Mexico. Pop. (1900) 23,996. Saltillo is on the Mexican National railway and another railway connects it with the important mining and industrial town of Torreon, on the Mexican Central. The city is on the great central plateau of Mexico, about 5200 ft. above sea-level. It has a cool and healthy climate, and is a resort in summer for the people of the tropical coast districts, and in winter for invalids from the north. The city is laid out in regular squares, with shady streets and plazas. The residences are of the Spanish colonial type, with heavy walls and large rooms to insure coolness during the heat of the day. Among its public institutions are a national college, an athenaeum, the Madero Institute with a good library, some fine churches, and the charitable institutions common to all Mexican cities. Saltillo is an active commercial and manufacturing town, and an important railway centre. Its manufactures include cotton and woollen fabrics, knitted goods and flour. The woollen “zarapes” or “ponchos” of Saltillo are among the finest produced in Mexico. There are undeveloped coal deposits in the vicinity.

Saltillo was founded in 1586 as an outpost against the Apache Indians. It became an incorporated city in 1827. In 1824 the capital of the state of Coahuila and Texas was at Saltillo. A partisan controversy removed the seat of government to Monclova in 1833, but it was returned to Saltillo in 1835. The battle of Buena Vista was fought near Saltillo on the 22nd–23rd of February 1847. After leaving San Luis Potosi, President Juarez established his capital at Saltillo for a brief period.