1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Scandium
SCANDIUM [symbol Sc, atomic weight 44.1 (O=16)], one of
the rare earth metals. It was isolated in 1879 by L. F
and was shown by Cleve to be identical with the ekaboron
predicted by D. Mendeléeff. The separation of scandium from
wolframite (which contains 0.14-0.16% of rare earths) is
given by R. J. Meyer (Zeit. anorg. Chem. 1908, 60, p. 134),
but it seems impossible to obtain a perfectly pure specimen
of the oxide. The salts of scandium are all colourless,
the chloride and bromide corresponding in composition to
Sc2X6⋅12H2O; the fluoride is anhydrous. The sulphate combines
with the alkaline sulphates to form double salts of the
type Sc2(SO4)3⋅3K2SO4. A large number of salts, both of inorganic
and organic acids, have been described by Sir W.
Crookes (Phil. Trans. 1908, 209, A. p. 15); those of the fatty
acids are in most cases more soluble in cold than in hot water.