1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Societies, Learned

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SOCIETIES, LEARNED. Under Academies will be found a general account of the principal bodies of which that word forms part of the titles, usually denoting some kind of state support or patronage But that account excludes a number of important scientific, archaeological, and literary societies, chiefly founded and carried on by private collective effort. Most of the institutions hereinafter mentioned are still flourishing. Fine art societies are not included.

In their modern form learned and literary societies have their origin in the Italian academies of the Renaissance: private scientific societies arose chiefly during the 19th century, being due to the necessity of increased organization of knowledge and the desire among scholars for a common ground to meet, compare results, and collect facts for future generalization. These bodies rapidly tend to increase in number and to become more and more specialized, and it has been necessary to systematize and co-ordinate their scattered work. Many efforts have been made from time to time to tabulate and analyse the literature published in their proceedings, as, for instance, in the Repertorium of Reuss (1801-1821) and the Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society (1867-1902) for physics and natural science, with its subject indexes and the indexes of Walther (1845) and Koner (1852-1856) for German historical societies. A more recent example may be found in G. L. Gomme's Index of Archaeological Papers (1907). A further development of the work done by societies was made in 1822, when, chiefly owing to Humboldt, the Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte first met at Leipzig. This inauguration of the system of national congresses was followed in 1831 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which has served as the model for similar societies in France, America, Italy, Australia and South Africa. The merit of introducing the idea of migratory congresses into France is due to the distinguished archaeologist, M. Arcisse de Caumont (1802-1873), who established the Association Normande, which from 1845 held a reunion in one or other of the towns of the province for the discussion of matters relating to history, archaeology, science and agriculture, with local exhibitions. From the same initiation came the Congrès Archeologique de France (1834), which was organized by the Société Française pour la Conservation des Monuments Historiques, the Congrès Scientifique, which held its first meeting at Caen in 1833 (directed by the Institut des Provinces), and the Congrès des Sociétés Savantes des Départements, which for many years after 1850 held its annual sittings at Paris. The idea received the sanction of the French government in 1861, when a Congrès des Sociétés Savantes was first convoked at the Sorbonne by the minister of public instruction, who had in 1846 produced an Annuaire des Sociétés Savantes. In Italy Charles Bonaparte, prince of Canino, started an association with like objects, which held its first meeting at Pisa in 1839. Russia has had an itinerant gathering of naturalists since 1867. International meetings are a natural growth from national congresses. Two remarkable examples of these cosmopolitan societies are the Congrès International d'Archéologie et d'Anthropologie Préhistoriques, founded at Spezzia in 1865, and the Congrès International des Orientalistes (1873).

I. Science generally
United Kingdom.—First in antiquity and dignity among English

societies comes the Royal Society (q.v.) of London, which dates from 1660. In 1683 William Molyneux, the author of The Case of Ireland Stated, exerted himself to form a society in Dublin after the pattern of that of London. In consequence of his efforts and labours the Dublin Philosophical Society was established in January 1684, with Sir William Petty as first president. The members subsequently acquired a botanic garden, a laboratory and a museum, and placed themselves in communication with the Royal Society of London. Their meetings after 1686 were few and irregular, and came to an end at the commencement of hostilities between James II. and William III. The society was reorganized in 1693 at Trinity College, Dublin, where meetings took place during several years. On 25th June 1731, chiefly owing to the exertions of Dr S. M. Madden, the Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures, and other Useful Arts came into existence. In January 1737 they commenced to publish the Dublin Society's Weekly Observations, and in 1746 the society was placed on the civil establishment, with an allowance of £500 a year from the government. A charter of incorporation was granted in 1750, and seven years later the Royal Dublin Society for the first time owned a house of its own, and in the following year began the drawing school, which subsequently did so much for Irish art. Between 1761 and 1767 government grants to the amount of £42,000 for promoting national agriculture and manufactures were distributed by the society, which claims to be the oldest scientific body in the United Kingdom after the Royal Society of London. It has published Transactions (1799, &c.); and its Proceedings (1764-1775; 1848, &c.) and Journal (1856-1876, &c.) are still issued. The Dublin Univ. Phil. Soc. issues

Proceedings. For the Royal Irish Academy, see Academies.
The Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh was instituted in 1771,

and incorporated in 1788; it is exclusively devoted to natural history and the physical sciences. With it have been merged many other societies, such as the Chirurgo-Medical in 1796, the American Physical in 1796, the Hibernian Medical in 1799, the Chemical in 1803, the Natural History in 1812 (which brought in Brougham and Mackintosh) and the Didactic in 1813. It issues Transactions and Proceedings (1858, &c.). From the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh (1731) was developed the Royal Society of Edinburgh, whose charter is dated 29th March 1783. It was to comprise a physical and a literary class; among the members of the latter were Robertson, Hume, Burke and Reid, and among those of the former Hutton, Black, Playfair, Dugald Stewart and Watt. The literary division has been much less productive than the other. A second charter was obtained in 1811. The society has published Transactions (4to, 1788, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1832, &c.). The Royal Scottish Soc. of Arts (1821) publishes Transactions.

The Linnean Society for the promotion of zoology and botany was founded in 1788 by Dr (afterwards Sir) J. E. Smith, in order to supplement the work of the Royal Society, and obtained a royal charter in 1802. The herbarium and collections of Linnaeus, with the founder's additions, were purchased after his death. It removed from Sir Joseph Banks's old house in Soho Square to Burlington House (London) in 1857, and assumed the apartments it now occupies in 1873. It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The Journal (8vo, 1856, &c.) and the Transactions (4to, 1791, &c.) are divided into zoological and botanical sections. The Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Commerce, and Manufactures took its origin in 1753 from an academy established in the Strand by the landscape painter William Shipley. Attention was paid to the application of science to practical purposes, a subject passed over by the Royal Society. Exhibitions of pictures by native artists were held, and the first exhibitions of the Royal Academy took place in its rooms. A fresh start in a new career was made by the Society of Arts (since 1909 known as the Royal Society of Arts) in 1847, when it obtained a charter and the presidency of the Prince Consort. The International Exhibition of 1851 sprang from the smaller exhibitions previously held in its rooms. The East Indian section dates from 1869, the foreign and colonial and the chemical sections from 1874. Its organs have been Transactions (1783-1849) and the Journal (1853, &c.). Sir Joseph Banks, Count Rumford and other fellows of the Royal Society started the Royal Institution in 1799, when a site was purchased in Albemarle Street for “an establishment in London for diffusing the knowledge of useful mechanical improvements,” to “teach the application of science to the useful purposes of life.” The institution was incorporated in the following year. One of the most important epochs in the history of chemistry must be dated from the establishment of the laboratory where Davy and Faraday pursued their investigations. Belonging to the institution are foundations for professorships in natural philosophy, chemistry and physiology. Courses of lectures on special subjects are given as well as discourses (once a week) of a more general and literary character. Its Journal has been issued since 1802. The London Institution was established on a similar basis in 1805 and incorporated in 1807. The building in Finsbury Circus was erected in 1819. The British Association for the Advancement of Science was instituted at York on 27th September 1831, an imitation of the itinerant scientific parliament held in Germany since 1822 (already referred to), and arose from a proposal by Sir D. Brewster. A meeting is held annually at some place in the British empire chosen at a previous meeting. The object of the association is to promote science, to direct general attention to scientific matters, and to facilitate intercourse between scientific workers. Abstracts of the proceedings and reports of committees are published in the annual Report (1833, &c.). The Historical Society of Science (1841) printed a couple of volumes; and the Ray Society (1844), instituted for the printing of original and scarce old works in zoology and botany, still flourishes. The Royal Colonial Institute was founded in 1868 and incorporated in 1882. It provides a place of meeting for gentlemen connected with the colonies and British India, undertakes investigations into subjects relating to the British empire, has established a museum and library, and gives lectures in its new, building in Northumberland Avenue (London). It has published Proceedings since 1870. The Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain, was founded in 1865 to form a connecting bond between men of science and others engaged in investigating important questions of philosophy and science, more especially those bearing upon the truths revealed in Holy Scripture. Its organ is the Journal (1867, &c.). The Royal Asiatic Society and the East India Association (1866) publish Journals.

The African Society meets at the Imperial Institute and publishes a
Journal. The Selborne Soc. (1885) promotes nature study and

issues a Mag. The foundation in 1821 of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in Scotland, now usually known as the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, for the promotion of the useful arts and such branches of science as bear upon them, was due to Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Mackintosh and others; it was incorporated in 1841, and has published Transactions since that year.

The leading provincial societies of Great Britain of a general character are as follows:—Aberdeen, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1863), Trans.; Phil. Soc. (1840). Alloa, Soc. of Nat. Hist. and Arch. (1863), Proc. (1865, &c.). Banff, Banffshire Field Club and Sc. Soc. (1880), Proc. Bath, Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Field Club (1866), Proc. (1867, &c.); Roy. Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1825), Proc.; Bath Lit. and Phil. Assn. Bedford, Bedfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. Belfast, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1821), Proc. (1852, &c.), museum; Naturalists’ Field Club (1863), Proc. (1875, &c.). Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club (1831), Proc. (1834, &c.). Birkenhead, Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1857). Birmingham, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1858), Trans.; Birmingham and Midland Institute Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. of archaeological section (1871, &c.); Phil. Soc. (1876) has a fund for promotion of original research, Proc.; Midland Union of Nat. Hist. Societies (1877), Midland Naturalist. Bolton, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1871). Bradford, Phil. Soc. (1865); Bradford Scientific Assn. (1875), Journal. Brighton, Brighton and Hove Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1855), Proc. Bristol, Naturalists' Soc. (1862), Proc. (1866, &c.). Burnley, Lit. and Sc. Club (1873), Trans. Burton-on-Trent, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1876), Trans. Cambridge, Phil. Soc. (1819; incorporated 1832), for the promotion of philosophy and natural science, owns museum and library, Proc. (1843, &c.), Trans. (1821, &c.). Cardiff, Naturalists’ Soc. (1867), Trans. Chester, Soc. of Nat. Sc., Lit. and Arts (1871). Cork, Royal Inst. (1807), library; Cuvierian and Arch. Soc. (1836). Cornwall Royal Inst., at Truro (1818), devoted to natural philosophy, natural history, and antiquities, Journal (1864, &c.); Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Soc., at Falmouth (1833; founded by the daughters of R. W. Fox and others), for the encouragement of science and the fine and industrial arts, Trans. (1835, &c.). Cumberland Assoc. for the Advancement of Lit. and Sc. (1876), provided a means of union for the local societies of Cumberland and Westmoreland, Trans. Derbyshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1878), Journal. Derry Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1870). Devonshire Assoc. for the Advancement of Sc. (1862). Dorset Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Field Club (1875), Proc. Dumfriesshire and Galloway Sc., Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc.. (1876), Trans. Dundee, Naturalists' Soc. (1873). Eastbourne, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.). East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' Societies (1884), Trans. Ebbw Vale, Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1850). Elgin, Elgin and Morayshire Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1836). Essex Field Club (1880), museums at Stratford and Chingford. Exeter, Naturalists' Club and Arch. Assoc. (1862). Glasgow, Roy. Phil. Soc. (1802), Proc. (1844, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc. (1851), Proc. (1868, &c.); Soc. of Field Naturalists (1872), Trans. (1872, &c.); Andersonian Naturalists' Soc. Gloucester, Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1838). Greenock, Phil. Soc. (1861). Halifax, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1830), museum and library. Hereford, Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, Hereford Pomona and Trans. (1866, &c.). Hertfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club, formed in 1879 from the Watford Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. High Wycombe, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1865), Magazine (1866, &c.). Hull, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822), Trans. (1824, &c.). Inverness, Sc. Soc. and Field Club (1875). Isle of Wight Phil. and Sc. Soc. (1850). Kent (East) Nat. Hist. Soc. at Canterbury (1858), Trans. Leeds, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1820); Naturalists' Club (1870), Trans. Leicester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1835), Trans. Lewes, Lewes and East Sussex Nat. Hist. Soc. (1864). Liverpool, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1812; united with Nat. Hist. Soc. in 1844), Proc. (1845, &c.); Philomathic Soc. (1825), Trans.; Polytechnic Soc. (1838), Journal (1838, &c.); Naturalists’ Field Club (1860). Manchester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1781), two sections, one physical and mathematical, the other for microscopy and natural history—the original statements respecting the atomic theory were given by Dalton in the Memoirs (1789, &c.), also Proc.; Field Naturalists' and Arch. Soc. (1860), Proc.; Scientific Students’ Assoc. (1861). Montrose, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1836), museum. Newbury, District Field Club (1870), Trans. (1871, &c.). Newcastle-on-Tyne, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1793), library; Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle Nat. Hist. Soc. (1829), a museum (opened in 1884), Trans. Norfolk, Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Soc. (1869), Trans. (1870, &c.). Nottingham, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1864); Naturalists' Soc. (1852), Trans. Orkney Antiq. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1837), museum. Oxford, Ashmolean Nat. Hist. Soc. (1828), Proc. Paisley, Phil. Institution (1808), free library and museum; Mr Coats presented his observatory in 1882. Penzance, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1839), museum, Proc. (1845, &c.). Perth, Lit. and Antiq. Soc. (1784); Perthshire Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.), the Scottish Naturalist (1870, &c.). Peterhead, Buchan Field Club (1887), Trans. Plymouth, Plymouth Inst. and Devon and Cornwall Nat. Hist. Soc. (1812), museum, art gallery and library. Preston Sc. Soc., affiliated with British Assn. Richmond, Richmond and North Riding Naturalists' Field Club (1863), Trans. Ripon, Naturalists' Club and Sc. Assoc. (1882). Rochdale Lit. and Sc. Soc., Trans. Scarborough, Phil. and Arch. Soc. (1831), museum and library. Severn Valley Naturalists' Field Club, at Bridgenorth (1863). Sheffield, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822); Museums Assoc. (1889), Proc. and Journ. Shetland Lit. and Sc. Soc. at Lerwick (1861). Shropshire and North Wales Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1835), at Shrewsbury. Somersetshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. at Taunton (1849), Proc. (1851, &c.). Southampton, Hartley Institution (founded under bequest of H. R. Hartley in 1859, incorporated 1862), for the promotion of scientific, antiquarian and Oriental studies and the fine arts, owns a museum and library. Staffordshire (North) Field Club and Arch. Soc. (founded as a natural history society in 1865; enlarged 1877), meets at Stone, Trans. Stirling, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1878), Trans. Stockport, Soc. of Naturalists (1884), Trans. Suffolk Inst. of Arch. and Nat. Hist., at Bury St Edmunds (1848), Proc. (1848, &c.), The East Anglian (1859, &c.). Swansea, Royal Institution of South Wales (founded 1835; incorporated 1883), with a museum and library, promotes natural history and applied science, literature and fine arts, local history and antiquities. Tamworth, Nat. Hist., Geolog. and Antiq. Soc. (1871). Teign Naturalists' Field Club (1858). Torquay, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1844), museum and library. Tweedside and Kelso Physical and Antiq. Soc. (1834). Warrington, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (founded in 1870 upon the Micr. Soc.). Warwickshire Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1836); Warwickshire Field Club (1854). Whitby, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822). Whitehaven Sc. Assn., Journal. Wiltshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. at Devizes (1853), Wiltshire Magazine (1853, &c.). Windsor, Windsor and Eton Sc. Soc., Trans. Witney, Nat. Hist. and Lit. Soc. (1858). Yorkshire Phil. Soc. (1822), the museum in the grounds of St Mary's Abbey, York, contains a remarkable collection of Roman remains; Naturalists' Union of the natural history and scientific societies of the county (founded in 1861 as the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Soc., reorganized in 1876), publishes the Naturalist

(1876, &c.), Trans.
Australia and New Zealand: Adelaide, Phil. Soc., Trans. (1865,

&c.); South Australian Inst. (1836), library; Roy. Soc. of S. Australia (1853), Trans., Proc., Reports. Auckland, Auckland Inst. Brisbane, Queensland, Phil. Soc. (1860), now the Roy. Soc. of Queensland (1884), Proc. Christchurch, Phil. Inst. Hobart Town, Roy. Soc. of Tasmania, Papers and Proc. (1843, &c.). Melbourne, Roy. Soc. of Victoria, Trans. and Proc. (1854, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc.; Zool. and Acclim. Soc., Proc. (1872, &c.). Sydney, Roy. Soc. of N.S. Wales (1821), Proc. (1867, &c.); Linnean Soc. of N.S. Wales (1874), Proc. (1875, &c.); Phil. Soc., Trans. (1862, &c.); Australasian Assoc. for Advancement of Sc., Reports of Annual Meetings (held at different place each year) (1888, &c.). Wellington, New Zealand Inst., Trans.

and Proc. (1868, &c.).
Canada: Halifax, Nova Scotia Inst. of Sc., Proc. and Trans. (1862,

&c.). Montreal, Nat. Hist. Soc. of Montreal (1827), Canadian Rec. of Sc. Ottawa, Roy. Soc. of Canada, Trans. (3 ser.) (1882, &c.); Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. (1897, &c.). St John, Nat. Hist. Soc. of N. Bruns. (1862), Bulletins (26 vols.). Toronto, Canadian Inst. (1849), Trans. and Proc. (1852, &c.); Roy. Canadian Acad. of Arts (1880).

Winnipeg, Hist. and Sc. Soc.
South Africa: Cape Town, South Afr. Phil. Soc., Trans. (1878 &c.).
West Indies: Kingston, Roy. Soc. of Arts of Jamaica, Trans. (1854, &c.); Port of Spain, Sc. Assoc. of Trinidad, Proc. (1866, &c.).
India, &c.: Calcutta, Asiatic Soc. of Bengal (1784), Journal

(1832, &c.; 1865, &c.), Bibl. Indica (1848, &c.), Mem. (1905, &c.). Singapore, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (Straits Br.), Journal (1880, &c.). Shanghai, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (N. China Br.), Journal (1857, &c.). Cairo, Inst. Egyptien (1859). Mauritius, Roy. Soc. of Arts and Sc.,

Proc. (1846, &c.) and Trans. (1848, &c.).
United States.—The Smithsonian Institution (q.v.), the most

important scientific body in America, is dealt with in a separate article. The first scientific society in the United States originated from a Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations, issued by Dr Franklin in 1743. In the following year the American Philosophical Society was founded at Philadelphia, with Thomas Hopkinson as president and Franklin as secretary. With it was united on 2nd January 1769 another Philadelphia society, The Junto (1758), the records of which have been preserved. The American Philosophical Society is still in vigorous life, and is an exclusively scientific body and the oldest organized society in the United States for the pursuit of philosophical investigation in its broadest sense. It publishes Transactions (4to, 1771, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1838, &c.). Second in point of date comes the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of Boston, incorporated in 1780 with the object of furthering the study of the antiquities and natural history of the country. Its Memoirs (4to, 1785, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1846, &c.) are still published. The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences was incorporated at New Haven in 1799. At first only devoted to matters connected with the state of Connecticut, it now embraces the whole field of the sciences and useful arts. It has issued Memoirs (1810-1816), and now publishes Transactions (1866, &c.). One of the leading societies in the United States, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, founded in 1812 and incorporated in 1817, possesses an excellent library; the natural history museum is especially rich in conchology. It issues a Journal (1817, &c.) and Proceedings (1843, &c.). The American Entomological Society is merged with it. The Franklin Institute of the same city, incorporated in 1825, possesses a library, gives lectures and issues a Journal (1826, &c.). The Boston Society of Natural History was

founded upon the Linnean Society (1814) in 1830 and incorporated
in 1831. It possesses a library and a cabinet of specimens. It

has published the Boston Journal of Natural History (8vo, 1837-1863), Memoirs (4to, 1866, &c.) and Proceedings (1841, &c.). The Lyceum of Natural History, New York, was incorporated in 1818 and has published Annals from 1823 (1824, &c.) and Proceedings (1870, &c.). In 1875 the name was changed to New York Academy of Sciences. A number of American naturalists and geologists, having held meetings in various cities between 1840 and 1847, resolved themselves at their Boston congress in the latter year into the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which was incorporated in 1874. Its object is “by periodical and migratory meetings to promote intercourse between American scientists.” It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The National Academy of Sciences was incorporated at Washington in 1863 with a view to making the knowledge of specialists available for the service of government. There are two classes of members, those in mathematics and physics and those in natural history. It has issued Annuals (Cambridge, 1865, &c.) and Reports, as well as Memoirs (1866, &c.). The Academies of Sciences at San Francisco (1853), St Louis (1856, incorporated 1857), and Chicago (1857, incorporated 1865) deserve special mention.

Among the remaining societies of a general scientific character are—Albany Inst. (1829), Trans. (1830-1893), Proc. (1873-1882). Ann Arbor, Mich. Ac. of Sc. (1894). Baltimore, Maryland Acad. of Sc., Trans. (1901). Boston, Col. Soc. of Mass. (1892), Trans. Brooklyn Inst. of Arts and Sc. Buffalo, Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1861), Bull. Cincinnati, Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1870), Journal (1878, &c.); Cin. Museum Assoc. (1881). Cleveland, Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1852), Annals and Proc.; The Cleveland Society [Archaeol. Inst. of America] (1893). Columbus, Ohio State Acad. of Sc. (1891), Publ. Des Moines, Iowa Acad. of Sc. (1887), Proc.; Hartford, Sc. Soc. (1896); formerly Hartford Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1885), Bull. (1902, &c.). Indianapolis, Indiana Acad. of Sc. (1885), Proc. (1891, &c.). Ithaca, Amer. Phil. Assoc. (1902). Lincoln, Nebraska Acad. of Sc. (1891), Publ. Los Angeles, South California Acad. of Sc. (1891), Bull. Madison, Wisconsin Acad. of Sc. Arts and Letters, Trans. (1870, &c.). Milwaukee, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. (1857), Bull. Minneapolis, Minnesota Acad. of Sc. Bull. (1873, &c.). Minneapolis Acad. of Fine Arts (1883), Bull. (1905). New Orleans, Athenée Louicianais (1876), Comptes Rendus. New York, Amer. Inst. of the City of New York (1829), Journal (1834), Trans. (1841, &c.); Amer. Inst. for Sc. Research (1904), Proc. and Journal. Portland (Maine), Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1850), Proc. (1862, &c.). Poughkeepsie, Vassar, Brothers' Inst. (1874), Proc. (1874, &c., 1876, &c.). Rochester Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1881) Trans. Salem (Mass.), Essex County Nat. Hist. Soc. (1833; now merged in the Essex Institute) published the American Naturalist (1867-1868), afterwards issued by the Peabody Acad. of Science, as well as Proc. (1856, &c.) and Bulletin (1869, &c.). San Francisco, Tech. Soc. of the Pacific Coast (1884), Trans. in Journal of the Assoc. of Engineering Societies. Santa Barbara Society of Natural History (1876), Bull. (1887). Sioux City, Acad. of Sc. and Letters (1887), Proc. (1903, &c.). Topeka, Kansas Acad. of Science (1868), Trans. Washington, Phil. Soc. of Washington (1871), Bull. (1874, &c.). Wilkes-Barré, Wyoming Hist. and Geol. Soc. (1858), Proc. and Coll. (1858, &c.).

France.—The Institut de France (see Academies), which includes five separate academies, stands at the head of all French societies. The Société Philotechnique, founded in 1795 and recognized as of public usefulness by a decree of 11th May 1861, had for its object the encouragement and study of literature, science and the fine arts; literary organ was an Annuaire (1840, &c.). The Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale was founded in 1801 for the amelioration of all branches of French industry, and was recognized by the state in 1824; Bulletin. The Académie Nationale, Agricole, Manufacturière, Commerciale was founded by the duc de Montmorency in 1830, and offers prizes and medals, and brings out a Bulletin (1830, &c.). The Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences (1872), founded on the model of the British Association, holds migratory meetings and publishes Comptes rendus. With it has been amalgamated the Association Scientifique de France,

founded by Le Verrier in 1864.
The departmental societies are very numerous and active. The

chief are the following: Abbeville, Soc. d'Émulation (1797), Mém. (1833, &c.). Agen, Soc. d'Agr., Sc. et Arts (1784), Recueil (1800, &c.). Aix, Acad. des Sc., &c. (1829), based on Soc. des Amis de la Sc. (1765), Mém. (1819, &c.). Alais, Soc. Sc. et Litt. (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Amiens, Acad., based on Soc. Litt. (1750), Mém. (1835, &c.); Soc. Linnéenne (1838), Mém. (1866, &c.). Angers, Soc. Acad. de Maine-et-Loire (1857), Mém. (1857, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1799), Mém. (1831, &c.); Soc. Linn. de M.-et-L. (1852), Annales (1853, &c.). Angoulême, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Charente (1803), Annales (1819, &c.). Annecy, Soc. Florimontane (1851), Annales (1851, &c.) and Rev. Savoisienne (1851). Apt, Soc. Litt., Sc. et Art. (1863), Annales (1865, &c.). Arras, Acad. (1737), Mém. (1818, &c.) and other publications. Autun, Soc. Éduenne (1836), Mém. (1872, &c.) and other publications. Auxerre, Soc. des Sc. (1847), Bull. (1847, &c.). Avignon, Acad. de Vaucluse (formerly the Lycée d'Agr., &c., 1801), Mém. (1804), Documents and Cartulaires. Bar-le-Duc, Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1870), Mém. (1871, &c.). Bayeux, Soc. des Sc. Arts et B.-Lett. (1841), Mém. (1842, &c.). Beauvais, Soc. Acad. (1847), Mém. (1847, &c.), Comptes Rendus (1882, &c.). Belfort, Soc. d'Émulation (1872), Bull. (1872). Besançon, Acad. des Sc. &c. (1752; suppressed in 1793; re-established 1805), Proc.-verb. (1754, &c.), Mém. (1838, &c.); Soc. d'Émulation (1840), Mém. (1841, &c.). Béziers, Soc. Arch., Sc., &c. (1834), Bull. (1836, &c.). Blois, Soc. des Sc. et Lettres de Loir-et-Cher (1832), Mém. (1833, &c.). Bordeaux, Acad. (1712; suppressed 1793; re-established 1816), Actes (1839, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1818), Bull. (1826-1829) and Actes (1830, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1850), Mém. (1855, &c.). Boulogne, Soc. Acad. (1864), Mém. (1864, &c.). Bourg, Soc. d'Émulation (1755), Journal (1817-1868) and Annales (1868, &c.). Bourges, Soc. Hist., &c., du Cher (1849), Mém. (1857, &c.). Brive la Gaillarde, Soc. Sc., Hist. et Archéol. (1878), Bull. (1879, &c.). Caen, Acad. (1652), Rec. (1731-1816), Mém. (1825); Soc. Linn. (1823), Mém. (1824, &c.), and Bull. (1855, &c.); Assoc. Normande (1831) , Annuaire (1835, &c.). Cahors, Soc. des Études Litt., Sc. et Artistiques (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). Cambrai, Soc. d'Émulation (1804), Mém. (1808, &c.). Cannes, Soc. des Sc. (1868), Mém. (1869, &c.). Carcassonne, Soc. d'Études, &c. (1889), Bull. (1890, &c.). Chambéry, Acad. (1819), Mém. (1825, &c.). Châteaudun, Soc. Dunoise (1864), Bull. (1864, &c.). Cherbourg, Soc. Acad. (1755), Mém. (1833, &c.); Soc. Nat. (1851), Mém. (1852, &c.). Clermont-Ferrand, Acad. (1747), Annales (1828, &c.) and Bull. (1881, &c.). Dijon, Acad. (1725; suppressed 1793; re-established 1800), Mém. (1769, &c.). Douai, Soc. d'Agr., &c., du Nord (1799), Mém. (1826, &c.). Draguinan, Soc. d'Études Sc. (1855), Bull. (1856, &c.). Dunkirk, Soc. Dunkerquoise (1851), Mém. (1853, &c.). Épinal, Soc. d'Émulation (1825), Journal (1825-1827), Séances (1828-1830), Annales (1828, &c.). Evreux, Soc. Libre d'Agr., &c. (1798), Recueil. Gap, Soc. d'Études (1881), Bull. (1882, &c.). Grenoble, Acad. Delphinale (1789), based on Soc. Litt. (1772), Bull. (1836, &c.). Havre, Soc. d'Études Diverses (1833), Recueil (1834, &c.). Laon, Soc. Acad. (1850), Bull. (1852, &c.). La Roche, Soc. d'Émulation (1854), Annuaire (1855, &c.). La Rochelle, Acad. (1732; suppressed 1791; reconstituted in 1803 as Lycée Rochelais and in 1853 under its former name), Annales (1854, &c.). Le Havre, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Le Mans, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Sarthe (founded in 1761; reorganized on several occasions, and finally in 1839), Bull. (1833, &c.). Le Puy, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1819), Annales (1826, &c.) and Bull. (1836, &c.). Lille, Soc. des Sc., &c. (founded 1802 as Soc. d'Amateurs), Mém. (1802, &c.); Soc. d'Études, Bull. (1899). Limoges, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c., de la Haute-Vienne (1759), Bull. (1822, &c.). Lons-le-Saunier, Soc. d'Émulation (1817), Mém. (1818, &c.). Lyons, Acad. (1724), Mém. (1854, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., Hist. Nat., &c. (1761), Comptes rend. (1806, &c.) and Mém. (1838, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1822), Annales (1836, &c.). Mâcon, Acad. (1805), Comptes rend. (1806-1847) and Annales (1851, &c.). Marseilles, Acad. (1726; in 1766 called Soc. des Sciences; suppressed in 1793; reorganized in 1799, and finally in 1802), Recueil (1727-1786) and Mém. (1803, &c.). Meaux, Soc. Libre d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1798; reorganized in 1820), Publ. (1833, &c.). Mende, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Lozère (1819), Mém. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1850, &c.). Montauban, Acad. (1730), Recueil (1742-1750 and 1869, &c.). Montbéliard, Soc. d'Ém. (1850), Mém. (1852, &c.). Montpellier, Acad. (founded in 1706 as Soc. Royale; suppressed in 1793; finally reorganized in 1846), Mém. (1847, &c.); Soc. d'Horticult., &c., de l'Hérault (1860), Annales (1860, &c.). Moulins, Soc. d'Ém. (1846), Bull. (1846, &c.). Nancy, Acad. de Stanislas (1750), Mém. (1754, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1873), founded on Soc. des Sc. Nat. de Strasbourg (1828), Mém. (1830, &c.) and Bull. (1866, &c.); Soc. d'archéol., &c. (1848) Mém. (1849, &c.), Journal (1852, &c.). Nantes, Soc. Acad. de la Loire-Inf. (1848), founded in 1798 as Institut Départmental, Annales (1830, &c.). Nevers, Soc. Nivernaise (1851), Bull. (1851, &c.). Nice, Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1861), Annales (1865, &c.). Nîmes, Acad. (1682), Mém. (1805); Soc. d'Étude des Sc. Nat. (1871), Bull. (1873, &c.). Niort, Soc. de Statist. Sc., &c., des Deux-Sėvres (1836), Mém. (1836, &c.) and Bull. (1852, &c.). Orleans, Acad. de Sainte-Croix (1863), Lect. et Mém. (1865, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1809), Bull. (1810-1813), Ann. (1818-1837), and Mém. (1837, &c.). Pau, Soc. des Sc., Lettres, &c. (1841), Bull. (1841, &c.). Périgueux, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c., de la Dordogne (1820), Annales (1840, &c.). Perpignan, Soc. Agr., &c. et Litt. (1833), Bull. (1834, &c.). Poitiers, Soc. d'Agr., Belles-Lettres, &c. (1789), Bull. (1818, &c.). Privas, Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Hist. (1861), Bull. (1861, &c.). Reims, Acad. Nat. (1841), Séances (1844, &c.). Rochefort, Soc. de Géog. Lettres, Sc. et Arts (1878), Bull. (1879, &c.). Rodez, Soc. des Lettres, Sc., &c., de l'Aveyron (1836), Mém. (1838, &c.) and Procès-Verb. (1864, &c.). Rouen, Acad. (1744). Précis Analyt. (1744, &c.); Soc. Libre d'Émulation, &c. (1790), Bull. (1797, &c.); Soc. des Amis des Sc. Nat. (1864), Bull. (1865, &c.). Saint-Brieuc, Soc. d'Ém., Bull. et Mém. (1861, &c.). Saint-Dié, Soc. Philomatique (1875), Bull. (1876, &c.). Saint-Étienne, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Loire (1822), Annales (1857). Saint-Lo, Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1833), Mém., &c. (1837, &c.). Saint-Quentin, Soc. Acad. (1825), Mém. (1830, &c.). Semur, Soc. des Sc. Hist. et Nat. (1842), Bull, (1864, &c.). Soissons, Soc. Arch., Hist. et Sc. (1846), Mém. (1847, &c.). Tarbes, Soc. Acad. des Hautes-Pyrénées (1853), Bull. (1854, &c.). Toulon, Soc. Acad. du Var (1811), Mém. (1832, &c.). Toulouse, Acad. (founded in 1640; known to 1704 as Soc. des Lanternistes and by other names to 1807, when present title was acquired), Hist. et Mém. (1782-1790) and Mém. (1827, &c.); Soc. d'Hist. Nat. (1866),

Bull. (1867, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1872), Bull. (1872, &c.). Tours, Soc.
d'Agr., &c., d'Indre-et-Loire (founded in 1761 as Soc. Roy. d'Agr.),

Recueil (1763 and 1803-1810) and Annales (1821, &c.). Troyes, Soc. Acad., based on Soc. Acad. de l'Aube (1798), Mém. (1801, &c.). Valenciennes, Soc. d'Agr., Sc. et Arts (1831), Mém. (1833, &c.; 1865, &c.) and Revue Agricole (1849, &c.). Vannes, Soc. Polymathique du Morbihan (1826), Proc.-verb. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1857, &c.). Vendôme, Soc. Arch., Sc. et Litt. (1862), Bull. (1862, &c.). Verdun, Soc. Philomath. (1822), Mém. (1840). Versailles, Soc. d'Agr. et des Arts (1798), Mém. (1799-1864) and Bull. (1866, &c.); Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Méd. (1832), Mém. (1835, &c.) ; Soc. des Sc. morales, &c. (1798), Mém. (1847-1897), Revue (1899, &c.). Vesoul, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Haute-Saoôe (1801; reorganized in 1819 and 1832), Recueil Agronom. (1836, &c.), Mém. (1859, &c.), and Bull. (1869, &c.). Vitry-le-François, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1861), Bull. (1867, &c.). Constantine (Algeria), Soc. Archéol. (1852), Annuaire et Recueil (1853. &c.).

Germany and Austria-Hungary.—Agram, Jugo-slavenska Akademija or South Slav. Acad. (1866), various publications; Croatian Nat. Hist. Soc. (1885). Altenburg, Naturforsch. Ges. d. Osterlandes (1817), Mittheil. Augsburg, Naturforsch. Ver.(1846), Ber. (1848, &c.). Bamberg, Naturforsch. Ges. (1834), Ber. (1852, &c.). Berlin, Ges. naturf. Freunde (1773), Sitzungsber. (1860, &c.); Deutsch-asiatische Ges. (1902), Zeitschrift. Blankenburg, Naturwiss. Ver. des Harzes (1831), Ber. (1841, &c.). Bonn, Naturh.-Verein (1843), Verhandl. (1844, &c.); Görres Ges. (1876), Hist. Jahrbüch. (1879, &c.); Niederrhein. Ges. (1818, reorganized, 1839). Bremen, Naturwiss. Ver. (1864), Abhandl. (1868, &c.). Breslau, Schles. Ges. f. vaterl. Kultur (1803), Jahresber. (1804, &c.). Bromberg, Deutsche Ges. f. Kunst u. Wiss. (1902) with 7 sections, Jahresber. (1902, &c.). Brünn, K. k. Mähr.-Schles. Ges., Mittheil. (1821, &c.). Budapest, K. Magyar Természettudományi Társulat or Roy. Hung. Soc. of Nat. Sciences (1841) , many publications, monthly proceedings of zoological, chemical and botanical sections. Cassel, Ver. f. Naturkunde, Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Colmar, Soc. d'Hist. Nat. (1859), Bull. (1860, &c.). Cracow, Towarzystwo Naukowe, afterwards Akademija Umiejetnosci or Acad. of Science (1815), with several sections each publishing proceedings; the Acad. issues a Bulletin (1873, &c.). Danzig, Naturforsch. Ges., Versuche (1745-1757) and Schriften (1820, &c.); Bot.-zoolog. Ver. (1878). Donaueschingen, Ver. f. Gesch. u. Naturgesch. (1801), Schriften. Dresden, Naturwiss. Ges. Isis (1833), Sitzungsber. (1861, &c.); Ges. f. Natur-u. Heilkunde (1818), Jahresber. (1848, &c.); Ges. f. Botanik u. Zoologie, Nunquam Otiosus (1870, &c.). Dürkheim, Pollichio, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1843, &c.). Elberfeld, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1851, &c.). Emden, Naturforsch. Ges. (1814), Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Erfurt, Kgl. Pr. Akad. gemeinnütz. Wiss., Acta (1757, &c.), Abhandl. (1860, &c.). Frankfort, Seckenbergische naturforsch. Ges. (1817), Museum (1834-1845) and Abhandl. (1854, &c.). Freiburg (in Baden), Naturforsch. Ges. (1821), Ber. (1858, &c.). Fulda, Ver. f. Naturkunde (1865), Ber. (1870, &c.). Giessen, Oberhess. Ges. f. Natur- und Heilkunde (1833), Ber. (1847, &c.). Görlitz, Oberlausitzer Ges. d. Wiss. (1779), Magazin (1822); Naturforsch. Ges. (1811), Abhandl. (1827, &c.). Gorz, Soc. Imp. Reale, Mem. Göttingen, K. Ges. d. Wissensch. (1751, 1893), Gött. gelehrte Anzeigen, Abhandl. (1845, &c.) and Nachr. (1845, &c.). Gratz, Naturwiss. Ver. Mittheil. (1863, &c.). Greifswald, Naturwiss. Ver. von Neu-Vorpommern, Mittheil. (1869, &c.). Halle, Naturf. Ges. (1779), Abhandl. (1853, &c.); Naturwiss. Ver. (1848), Zeitschrift (1853, &c.). Hamburg, Naturwiss. Ver. (1837), Abhandl. (1846, &c.). Hanau, Wetterauische Ges. (1808), Jahresber. (1852, &c.). Heidelberg, Naturhist.-med. Ver., Verhandl. (1857, &c.); Akad. der Wiss. Stiftung H. Lanz (1909). Hermannstadt, Siebenbürgisch. med. Ver. f. Naturwiss., Verhandl. (1849, &c.). Innsbruck, Ferdinandeum, Beiträge (1825-1834) and Neue Zeitschrift (1835, &c.). Jena, K. Leopold.-Carol. Akad. Athenaeum (1875, &c.); K. Leopold.-Carol. D. Akad. d. Naturf., Leopoldina (1859, &c.); Med.-naturwiss. Ges. Jen., Zeitschr. (1864, &c.). Karlsruhe, Naturwiss. Ver. (1863), Verhandl. (1864, &c.). Klausenburg, Siebenbürg. Museum, Annalen. Leipzig, Ges. Deut. Naturforscher u. Ärzte (1822), Tageblatt (1836, &c.), Verhandl.; K. Sächs. Ges. d. Wiss. (1846), Ber. (1846, &c.) and Abhandl. (1850, &c.); Deutsche morgenländ. Ges. (1845), Zeitschrift (1847, &c.), Abhandl. (1857, &c.). Lemberg, Ges. v. Galizien, Ber. Lüneburg, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1852, &c.). Magdeburg, Naturwiss. Ver., Abhandl. (1869, &c.). Mainz, Rhein. naturforsch. Ges. (1834). Mannheim, Ver. f. Naturk., Jahresber. (1834, &c.). Marburg, Ges. z. Beförderung der gesamtem Naturwiss., founded in 1816 as Kurhessische Akademie, Schriften (1823, &c.) and Sitzungsber. (1866, &c.). Meissen, Ver. f. Erdk., Isis (1845). Metz, Acad., based on Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1819), Mém. (1828, &c.); Soc. d'Hist. Nat., Mém. (1843) and Bull. (1844, &c.). Munich, Münchener Orient. Ges. (1901), Beiträge. Nuremberg, Naturhist. Ges. (1801), Abhandl. (1852, &c.), Mittheilungen; Naturhist. Ges. (1801), Mittheil. and Abhandl. Posen, Deutsche Ges. f. Kunst. u. Wiss. (1901). Prague, K. Böhm. Ges. (1770, 1784) consists of two classes, receives a state subsidy, Abhandl. (1785, &c.) and Sitzungsber. (1859, &c.); Naturhist. Ver. Lotos, Lotos (1851, &c.); Ges. zur Forderung deutscher Wiss., Kunst. u. Lit. in Böhmen (1891), state subsidy and many private bequests, Mittheil. and other publications. Pressburg, Ver. f. Naturk., Verhandl. (1856, &c.). Ratisbon, Zoolog.-mineralog. Ver. (1846, since 1883 called Naturwiss. Ver.), Abhandl. (1849, &c.). Reichenbach (Voigtland, Saxony), Ver. f. Naturk. (1859), Mittheil. Rostock, Verein f. Freunde der Naturgeschichte (1847), Archiv. Roveredo, I.R. Accad. (1750), Atti (1826, &c.). Strassburg, Soc. des Sc. Agr. et Arts (1802), Mém. (1811, &c.) and Bull. (1843, &c.); Wissenschaftl. Ges. (1906), Schriften (1906, &c.). Stuttgart, Ver. f. vaterl. Naturk. (1845),. Jahresber. (1850, &c.). Thorn, Copernicus Ver. (1854). Trieste, Soc. Adriatica, Boll. Ulm, Ver. f. Mathem. u. Naturwiss. (1865), Verhandl. Vienna, K. k. Zoolog.-bot. Ges., Verhandl. (1851, &c.); Verein z. Verb. Naturwiss. Kentnisse, Schriften (1862, &c.). Wiesbaden, Nassauischer Ver. f. Naturk. (1829), Jahrbücher (1844, &c.). Zweibrücken, Natur-hist.

Ver. (1863), Jahresber. (1864, &c.).
Switzerland.—Basel, Naturforsch. Ges. (1817), Ber. (1835, &c.)

and Verhandl. (1835, &c.). Bern, Soc. Helvetique des Sciences Nat. (1815), Actes (1816, &c.), Comptes rendus (1879), Mémoires (1829, &c.). Chur, Naturforsch. Ges., Jahresber. (1856, &c.). Geneva, Soc. de Phys. et d'Hist. Nat., Mém. (1821, &c.); Société des Arts (Athénée), founded by H. B. de Saussure in 1776; Institut National genevois (1853), Mém. and Bull. Lausanne, Soc. Vaudoise des Sc. Nat., Bull. (1842, &c.). Neuchâtel, Soc. des Sc. Nat., Mém. (1835, &c.) and Bull. (1844, &c.). St Gall, Naturwiss. Ges., Ber. (1860, &c.). Solothurn, Naturhist. Kantonal-Ges., Jahresber. (1825, &c.). Zurich, Naturforsch. Ges. (1746), Abhandl. (1761-1856), Mittheil. (1846, &c.), and Vierteljahrsschr. (1856, &c.); Allg. Schweizer Ges. f. d. Naturwiss.,

Verhandl., Anzeiger, and Denkschr. (1829, &c.).
Italy.—Congresso degli Scienziali Italiani, Atti (1844-1845);

Riunione degli Sc. Ital., Atti (1839-1847; 1873, &c.). Bologna, Accad. delle Sc.-dell' Istit. di Bologna (1714), Rendic. (1833, &c.), and Mém. (1850, &c.). Brescia, Accad., afterwards Ateneo, Comment. (1808, &c.). Catania, Accad. Gioenia di Sc. Nat., Atti (1825, &c.). Florence, R. Museo di Fis. e Stor. Nat., Annali (1808, &c.); Soc. Asiatica Italiana (1886), Giornale. Lucca, R. Accad. Lucchese (1584), Atti (1821, &c.). Messina, R. Accad. Peloritana. Milan, Accad. Fis. Med. Statist., Diario ed Atti (1846, &c.); R. Istit. Lombardo, Mém. (1819, &c.), Giornale (1840, &c.), Atti (1860, &c.), and Rendic. (1864, &c.); Soc. Ital. delle Sc. Nat., Atti (i860, &c.) and Mem. (1865, &c.). Modena, R. Accad. di Sc., &c., Mem. (1833, &c.); Soc. Ital. delle Sc., Mem. (1782, &c.). Naples, R. Istit. d'Incoragg. alle Sc. Nat. (1806), Atti (1811, &c.); Soc. Reale di Napoli (1808), consists of three sectional academies. Padua, R. Accad. di Sc., Lett., ed Arti (1779), Saggi (1786, &c.) and Revista (1851, &c.). Palermo, R. Accad. di Scienze (1722). Rome, Soc. Ital. per il progresso delle Scienze (1907). Venice, R. Istit. Veneto di Sc. (1838), Atti (1841, &c.) and Mem. (1843, &c.); Ateneo Veneto, two sections, literature and science. Verona, Accad. d'Agricoltura, Scienze, Lettere, Arti e Commercio

(1768), Atti and Memorie.
Belgium.—Brussels, Soc. Roy. des Sc. Nat. et Méd. (1822), Journ.

de Méd. (1842-1895) and Annales (1892, &c.); Soc. Roy. Linn. (1835), Bull. (1872, &c.); Soc. scientifique de Bruxelles (1875), Revue (1877, &c.), Annales (1877, &c.). Ghent, K. Vlaamische Acad. (1886). Liége, Soc. Roy. des Sc. (1835), Mém. (1843, &c.). Mons, Soc. Prov.

des Sc., &c., du Hainaut (1833), Mém. (1839, &c.).
Holland.—Amsterdam, K. Nederlandsch Instituut, Proc.-verb.

(1808, &c.), Verhandel. (1812, &c.), Tijdschrift (1847); Genootschap ter Beford. der Natuur-, &c., Kunde, Maanblad (1807, &c.) and Werken (1870, &c.); Hollandsche Maatschappij, Werken (1810, &c.); Maatschappij ter Befordering van het Natuurkundig onderzoek der Nederl. Kolonien (1890), branches in Batavia and Paramaribo, Notulen, Bulletins, &c. Arnheim, Natuurkundig Genootschap, Tijdschrift (1844, &c.). Bois-le-Duc, Provinc. Genootschap, Handelingen (1837, &c.). Groningen, Natuurk. Genootschap, Versl. (1862, &c.). Haarlem, Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetensch. (1752), Verhandel. (1754, &c.). The Hague, K. Zoolog.-Botanisch Genootschap, Versl. (1864, &c.). Luxembourg, Soc. des Sc. Nat., Publ. (1853, &c.). Middelburg, Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetensch., Verhandel. (1769, &c.) and Archief (1856, &c.). Utrecht, Provinc. Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetensch. (1773), Verhandel. (1781, &c.) and Aanteekeningen (1845, &c.) promotes the study of medicine, natural history, law and literature. Batavia, Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetensch. (1778), Verhandel. (1781, &c.), Tijdschrift (1853, &c.), and Notulen (1862, &c.); Natuurk. Vereeniging in Nederl. Indië

(1850), Tijdschrift (1851-1865) and Verhandel. (1856, &c.).
Denmark.—Copenhagen, K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab,

based on Kjöbenhavnske Selskab (1743-1813), Skrifter (1781, &c.) and Afhandlinger (1824, &c.); Naturhist. Forening, Meddelelser (1849, &c.).

Reykjavik, Islenzka Náttúrufraedisfèlag (1889), annual reports.
Sweden.—Gottenburg, K. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Samhälle,

Handlingar (1778, &c.). Stockholm, K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademi, Handlingar (1740, &c.) and Årberättelser (1820, &c.). Upsala, K.

Vetenskaps Societeten (1710), Acta (1720, &c.).
Norway.—Christiania, Physiographiske Forening, Mag. for

Natur-Vidensk. (1832, &c.); Videnskabs-Selskabet (1857), Forhandl. (1859, &c.), Skrifter (1894, &c.). Throndhjem, K. Norske Vidensk.-Selskab,

Skrifter (1817, &c.).
Spain.—Barcelona, R. Acad. de Buenas Letras, the oldest Spanish

society, Mem. and Boletin; R. Acad, de Ciencias y Artes (1763). Madrid, R. Acad, de Cien. Exactas, Fis., y Nat. (1847), Mem. (1850, &c.); Soc. Exspañ. de Hist. Nat., Anales (1872, &c.). San Fernando,

R. Acad., Mem.
Portugal.—Coimbra, Instituto de Coimbra (1852). Lisbon, Soc. Portugueza de Sciencias Naturais (1907), Bulletin (1907, &c.).
Russia.—Siezd Russkikh Yestestvoispytately (Meeting of Russ. Naturalists), first meeting at St Petersburg 1867-1868, Trudy or
Trans. (4to, 1868, &c.). Dorpat, Naturforsch. Ges. (1853), Sitzungsber.

(1853, &c.) Archiv (1854, &c.) and Trudy (1884, &c.); Gelehrte Estnische Ges., Verhandl. (1840, &c.), Schriften (1863-1869) and Sitzungsber. (1861, &c.). Ekaterinburg, Soc. of Naturalists (1870), Zapiski. Helsingfors, Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica (1821), Acta (1875, &c.); Finska Vetenskaps-Soc. (1838), three sections. Kaminietz, Naturforsch. Ges. Kazan, Soc. of Naturalists at University, Protokoly (1870, &c.) and Trudy (1872, &c.). Kharkoff, Soc. of Scientists at Univ., Trudy (1870, &c.) and Protokoly (1870, &c.). Kieff, Soc. of Naturalists, Zapiski. Lemberg, Polish Soc. for the Advancement of Science (1901). Moscow, Imp. Soc. of the Friends of Nat. Hist., Anthrop., &c. (1863), Izviestiya or Bull. (1865, &c.); Soc. Imp. des Naturalistes (1805), Mém. (4to, 1806) and Bull. (8vo, 1829, &c.). Odessa, Soc. of Naturalists of New Russia, Zapiski (1872, &c.) and Protokoly (1874, &c.). Riga, Naturforsch.-Ver. (1845), Corr.-Blatt (1846, &c.) and Arbeiten (1865, &c.). St Petersburg, Imp. Soc. of Naturalists (1868), Trudy (1870, &c.). Saratov, Soc. of Naturalists (1895), Trudy (1899, &c.). Warsaw, Soc. of Friends of Sc., Roczniki (1802-1828); Warsaw Naturalists' Soc. (1889).

Rumania.—Bucharest, Acad. Românǎ (1866), Annalile (1867, &c.); Soc. de Stünte (1891); Soc. Politechnicǎ (1881). Jassy, Soc.

Ştünţifica şi Literarǎ (1889).
Greece.—Athens, Φιλολογικὸς σύλλογος Παρνασσός (1865), Παρνασσός

and other publications; Ὴ ἐν Ἀθήναις Ἐπιστημονικὴ Ἑταιρεία (1888),

since 1899 styled Σιναία Ἀκαδήμεια.
Central and South America.—Bogotá, Soc. de Naturalistas

Colombianos, Contribuciones (1860, &c.). Buenos Aires, Soc. Cientifica Argentina (1872), Anales (1876, &c.). Caracas, Soc. de Ciencias, Boletin (1868, &c.). Cordova, Acad. Nacion., Bol. (1874, &c.). Guatemala, Instit. Nac.; Academia (1888); Ateneo (1903), 7 sections. Havana, Acad. de Cien. (1861), Anales (1864, &c.). La Paz (Bolivia), Academia Aymara (1901). Mexico, Soc. Mex. de Hist. Nat. (1868), La Naturaleza (1869, &c.); Academia Mejicana (1875), Memorias (1876-1896); Acad. Mex. de Sciencias (1894), Anales. Rio de Janeiro, Palestra Cient., Archivos (1858, &c.). Santiago, Soc. de Hist.

Nat.
Japan.—Tokyo, Asiatic Soc. of Japan (1872), Trans. (1874, &c.);

Deutsche Ges. f. Natur- u. Völkerskunde Ostasiens (1873), Mitteil.

(1873, &c.).
II. Mathematics
Many of the general scientific societies (see class i.) have

mathematical and other special sections. Among defunct English societies may be mentioned the Mathematical Society, which used to meet in Spitalfields (1717-1845) and possessed a library, and the Cambridge Analytical Society, which published Memoirs (4to, 1813). The London Mathematical Society (1865, incorporated 1894), Proc. (1865, &c.), the Mathematical Assn. (1871), Gazette, and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (1883), Proc. (1883, &c.), are still flourishing.

United States: American Mathem. Soc. (reorganized 1894), meets at Columbia University, Bull. and Trans. France: Paris, Soc. Mathém. de France (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Mathem. Ver. der Univ. (1861), Ber. (1876, &c.); Berliner Mathem. Ges. (1901), Sitzungsber. Budapest, Mathematikai és Phys. Társulat (1891). Cassel, Geometer-Ver. (1878). Dresden, Ver. praktisch. Geometer (1854), Jahresber. (1861, &c.). Essen, Feldmesser-Ver. (1869). Göttingen, Mathemat. Ver. (1868). Hamburg, Mathemat. Ges. (1690), Mittheil. Königsberg, Geometer-Ver. (1872). Leipzig, Deutsche Mathem. Vereinigung (1891), founded at Halle, Jahresb. Strassburg, Geometer-Ver. (1881). Stuttgart, Deutscher Geometer-Ver., Zeitschrift (1872, &c.). Holland: Amsterdam, Genootschap der Mathemat. Wetensch. Kunstoeffinengen (1782-1788), Mengelwerken (1793-1816), and Archief (1856, &c.). Spain: Valladolid, R. Acad, de Matematicas (1803, &c.), now dissolved. Russia: Kazan, Phys. and Math. Soc. (1880). Moscow, Mathemat. Soc. (1867).

Japan: Mathemat. Soc. of Tokyo, Journal (1878, &c.).
III. Astronomy
The first International Astronomical Congress met at Heidelberg

in 1863, and the first international conference for photographing the heavens at Paris in 1887. The Royal Astronomical Society was founded in 1820 under the title of Astronomical Society of London, and was incorporated on the 7th of March 1831. It occupies rooms in Burlington House, and has published Memoirs (1882, &c.) and Monthly Notices (1831, &c.). There are also the British Astronom. Soc. in London, and societies at Bristol (1869), Reports; Leeds (1859), Manchester and Liverpool (1881); Toronto, Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada (1890), Trans. (1890), Proc. (1902), Journal (1907, &c.); Madison, Astronomical and Astrophysical Soc. of America (1899); San Francisco, Astr. Soc. of the Pacific (1889), Publ.; Paris, Soc. Astr. (1887), Bull.; Berlin, Kgl. Astr. Recheninstitut (1897); Leipzig, Astronomische Ges. (1863), Publ. (1865, &c.) and Vierteljahrsschrift (1866, &c.); Turin, Soc. Astr. Ital. (1906), Revista; Brussels, Soc. Belge d'Astr., de Météorol. et de Physique du Globe (1893), Bull. mens.; Antwerp, Soc. d'Astr. (1905), Gazette; St Petersburg, Russ. Astr. Soc. (1890), Investija (1896, &c.); and Mexico, Soc. Astr. (1902), Boletin

(1902, &c.).
IV. Physics
The first International Electrical Congress was held at Paris in 1881.

The Physical Society of London was founded in 1874 and registered under the Companies Act; it publishes Proceedings (1874, &c.). The London Electrical Society (1836) did useful work in its Transactions (1837-1840, vol. i.) and Proceedings (1841-1843). Sir W. Siemens was one of the originators of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (founded in 1871 and registered in 1883). It owns the Ronalds library of electricity and magnetism and publishes a Journal. In London there are also the Faraday Soc. (1903), Trans. and Proc. and the Optical Soc.

United States: Philadelphia, Amer. Electrochem. Soc., Trans. (1902). New York, Nat. Elec. Light Assn. (1885), Proc. (1885); Amer. Phys. Soc. (1899), Bull. (1899) included since 1903 in the Physical Review; Am. Inst. of Electr. Eng. (1884), Trans. and Proc. France: Cambrai, Soc. Magnétique, Archives (1845). Paris, Soc. Franç. de Phys. (recognized as of public utility on the 15th of January 1881), Bull. Soc. Int. des Électriciens (1883), Bull. Germany: Berlin, Physikalische Ges. (1843), Fortschritte der Physik (1847, &c.); Elektrotechnisch. Ver. (1879), Ztschr. (1880, &c.). Breslau, Physikalischer Ver. Frankfort, Physikalischer Ver. (1824), Jahresber. (1841, &c.), and Wetterkarten daily. Königsberg, Phys.-ökon. Ges. (1790), Schr. (1859, &c.). Italy: Naples, R. Accad. delle Sc. Fis. e Matem., Rendic. (1856, &c.) and Atti (1863). Rome, Soc. degli Spettroscopisti Ital.; Soc. Ital. di Fisica (1897), Il nuovo cimento. Holland: Rotterdam, Bataafsch. Genootschap van Proefondervindelijke wijsbegeerte, Verhandel. (1774, &c.). Russia: St Petersburg, Russ.

Physico-Chemical Soc., Journal (1869, &c.).
V. Chemistry
Pharmaceutical societies are placed in class xiii. (Medicine, &c.).

The Chemical Society of London for the promotion of chemistry and the sciences immediately connected with it was instituted on the 23rd of February 1841; a charter of incorporation was obtained in 1848. It publishes Memoirs (1843, &c.), and Quarterly Journal (1849, &c.). Chemistry and its connexion with the arts, and agricultural and technical matters, form the subjects of the Institute of Chemistry, founded on the 2nd of September 1877 and incorporated in 1885. It publishes Proc. The Society of Chemical Industry (1881) was incorporated in 1907, and publishes a Journal. The Society of Public Analysts publishes the Analyst (1876, &c.). The oldest of the numerous photographic societies is the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain (1853), which issues a Journal. The Royal College of Chemistry was founded in July 1845, and had a brief career; it published Reports (1849). The Cavendish Society was instituted in 1846 for the publication and translation of works and papers on chemistry. It came to an end in 1872 after having issued 30 vols.

United States: New York, American Chemical Soc. (1876), Proc. (1876), Journ. (1879) and Abstracts (1907). Washington, Chem. Soc. (1884), Bull., now the Journal of the Amer. Chem. Soc. France: Paris, Soc. Chimique (1857), Bull. (1861, &c.). Germany: Berlin, Deutsche Chemische Ges. (1867), Ber. (1868, &c.); Deutsche Bunsen-Ges. (1894), Ztschr. für Elektrochemie; Verein Chem. Reichsanstalt. Frankfort, Chem. Ges. Jena, Chem. Laborat. Leipzig, Ver. Deutscher Chem. (1888), based on the Ver. Analyt. Chemiker., Ztschr. (1900, &c.). Würzburg, Chemische Ges. (1872). Bohemia: Prague, Spolek Chemiku Ceskych or Soc. of Bohemian Chemists, Zpravy or Trans. (1872, &c.). Belgium: Brussels, Soc. Chim. de Belgique, formerly

Assoc Belge des Chimistes (1887), Bull.
VI. Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology
The first International Congress of Geology took place at Bologna

in 1878. The Geological Society of London, founded in 1807 and incorporated in 1826, is the largest and most important in Great Britain; it has published Proceedings (1834-1846), Transactions (1811, &c.), and a Quarterly Journal (1845, &c.). The Geologists’ Association was instituted in 1858, and issues Proceedings (1859, &c.). The Mineralogical Society (1876) has united with it the Crystallogical Society; it issues the Mineralogical Magazine (1876, &c.). The Palaeontographical Society was founded in 1847 for the delineation and description of British fossils; it issues Publications (4to, 1847, &c.). The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall (1814) devotes special attention to the mining interests of the county, and publishes Transactions (1818, &c.). It holds its meetings at Penzance. The Geological Society of Edinburgh (1834) issues Transactions (1870, &c.). The Royal Geological Society of Ireland (1832) principally studied the geology of the country. It published a Journal (1837, &c.). There are also the Geological Associations of Leeds (1874) and Liverpool (1880), Trans., and the Societies of Liverpool (1859), Proc., and Manchester (1838), Trans.

South Africa: Johannesburg, Geol. Soc. of S. A. (1895), Trans. (1895, &c.). United States: Louisville, Ky., Ohio Falls Geolog. Soc. San Francisco, California State Geolog. Soc. (1876). New York, Geol. Soc. of Amer. (1888), Bull. Washington, Geol. Soc. of Washington (1893). France: Lille, Soc. Géol. du Nord (1870), Annales (1874, &c.). Havre, Soc. Géol. de Normandie, Bull. (1873, &c.). Paris, Soc. Géol. de France (1830, recognized 1832), awards the Prix Viquesnel (£40) every three years, Bull. (1830, &c.) and Mém. (1833, &c.); Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie (1878, recognized 1886), formerly Soc. Minéral. de France, Bull. (1879, &c.). Saint-Étienne, Soc. d'Ind. Minérale (1855), Bull. (1855, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Deutsche Geol. Ges. (1848), Ztschr. (1849, &c.),

Monatsberichte (1903, &c.); Budapest, Magyarhoni Földtani Tarsulat
1850) or Hungarian Geolog. Soc. (1850), Földtani Közlöny. Brünn,

Wernerscher Geol. Ver., Jahresber. Darmstadt, Mittelrheinischer Geolog. Ver. (1851), Mittheil. (1855, &c.). Dresden, Gebirgs-Ver. (1855). Switzerland: Schweizerische Geolog. Ges. (1882), section of Allg. Schw. Ges. Zürich, Schweiz. Paléontol. Ges. (1874), Abhandl. (1875, &c.). Italy: Rome, Soc. Sismol. Ital. (1895), Boll.; Soc. Geol. Ital., founded at the second International Geological Congress. Belgium: Antwerp, Soc. Paléontol. (1857), Bull. Brussels, Soc. Belge de Géol., de Paléont. et d'Hydrol. (1887), Bull. , Mém. and Proc.-verb. Charleroi, Soc. Paléontol. (1863), Documents et Rapports (1866, &c.). Liége, Soc. Géol. de Belgique, Annales (1874, &c.). Sweden: Stockholm, Geologiska Förening (1871), Förhändlingar (1872, &c). Russia: St Petersburg, Imp. Russian Mineralog. Soc. (1816), Trans., pub. in Russian, German and French (1830, &c.). Argentine Republic: Buenos Aires, Soc. Paleontol. Mexico: Mexico,

Soc. Geol. Mexicana (1904), Bol.
VII. Meteorology
The International Meteorological Congress first met at Brussels in

1853. The Royal Meteorological Society (1850) of London was incorporated in 1866; its organ is Quarterly Journal (1873, &c.). To this must be added the British Rainfall Society; the Scottish Meteorological Society holds its meetings at Edinburgh and issues a Journal (1866, &c.). Port Louis (Mauritius), Meteorolog. Soc. Trans. (1853, &c.). Paris, Soc. Météorolog. de France (1852), Annuaire (1853, &c.) and Nouvelles Météorolog. (1868, &c.). Berlin, Deutsche Meteor. Ges. (1883), Ztschr. Hamburg, Deutsche Meteorolog. Ges. (1883), Ztschr. Magdeburg, Ver. f. landwirtsch. Wetterkunde (1881). Meissen, Gesellsch., Isis. Vienna, Österreich. Ges. f. Meteorol., Zeitschrift (1866, &c.). Modena, Soc. Meteorolog. Ital. Gothenburg, Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-samhället (1778),

Handligar.
VIII. Microscopy
The Royal Microscopical Society (1839, incorporated 1866), with

Transactions (1842-1868) and Journal (1869, &c.); the Quekett Microscopical Club (1865), with a Journal (1868, &c.); and the Postal Microscopic Society (1873), also with a Journal, are located in London. There are suburban societies at Ealing (1877), Hackney (1877), Highbury (1878), South London (1871), and Sydenham (1871). In the provinces may be mentioned those at Bath (1859), Birmingham (1880), Bolton (1877), Bradford (1882), Bristol (1843), Carlisle, Chichester (Trans.), Croydon (1870, Trans.), Dublin (1840), East Kent (1858), Edinburgh, Liverpool (1868, Trans.), Manchester(1880), and Sheffield (1877). In the United States the State Microscop. Soc. of Illinois publishes the Lens (1872, &c.); Buffalo, Amer. Soc. of Microscopists; New York, Microscop. Soc.; Urbana, Amer. Micros. Soc. (1878), Proc. (1879), Trans. (1895, &c.). Brussels, Soc. Belge de Microscop. (1875), Proc.-verb. (1875, &c.) and Annales (1876, &c.). Berlin, Ges. f. Mikroskop. (1877), Ztschr. (1878, &c.).

Hanover, Ges. f. Mikroskop. (1879), Jahresber.
IX. Botany and Horticulture
Linnaean societies, which usually deal with both zoology and

botany, are placed in the general class (No. i.). The Congrès International d'Horticulture first met at Brussels in 1864, and the Congrès International de Botanique at Amsterdam in 1865. The Royal Botanic Society of London (incorporated 1839) has gardens in the inner circle of Regent's Park, and issues a Quarterly Record (1880, &c.). The Royal Horticultural Society (established in 1804, incorporated in 1809) has gardens at Chiswick, and publishes a Journal (1846, &c.). The chief provincial societies are—Aberdeen, North of Scotl. Hortic. Assoc. (1879), Trans. Arbroath, Hortic. Assoc. (1880). Birmingham, Bot. and Hortic. Soc. (1829), gardens. Dublin, Roy. Hortic. Soc. (1830). Liverpool, Bot. Soc. (1906). Edinburgh, Bot. Soc. (1836), Proc. (1837, &c.) and Trans. (1844, &c.); Royal Scottish Arboric. Soc. (1854), Trans.; Cryptogamic Soc. of Scotl. (1875). Canada: Kingston, Bot. Soc. of Canada (1860), Annals

(1861, &c.).
United States: Baltimore, Bot. Soc. Amer. (1894). Boston,

Hortic. Soc. (1829). New York, Torrey Botanical Club (1858, reorganized 1867), Bull. (1870, &c.). San Francisco, State Hortic. Soc. Washington, Bot. Soc. of Wash. (1901). France: Beauvais, Soc. d'Hortic. et de Bot. (1864), Bull. (1864, &c.). Bordeaux, Soc. d'Hortic. Chartres, Soc. d'Hortic. et de Viticulture. Chauny, Soc. de Pomologie, Dijon, Soc. d'Hortic. Fontenay-le-Comte, Soc. d'Hortic. Lisieux, Soc. d'Hortic. et de Bot. (1866), Bull. (1866, &c.). Lyons, Soc. d'Hortic. Pratique (1844), Bull. (1844, &c.) Soc. Bot. (1872), Annales (1872, &c.); Soc. Pomologique (1872), Bull. (1872, &c.). Moulins, Soc. d'Hortic. Nîmes, Soc. d'Hortic. Niort, Soc. d'Hortic. Orleans, Soc. d'Hortic. (1839), Bull. (1841, &c.). Paris, Soc. Nat. d' Hortic., (1827; declared of public utility 1852), Journal; Soc. Bot. de France, Bull. (1854), Mém. (1905, &c.). Rouen, Soc. Centr. d'Hortic. Saint Germain-en-Laye, Soc. d'Hortic. Senlis, Soc. d'Hortic. Troyes, Soc. d'Hortic. Versailles, Soc. d'Hortic. Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Bot. Ver. (1859), Verhandl. (1859, &c.); Deutsche Bot. Ges. (1882), Berichte (1883, &c.); Horticult. Ges. Blankenburg, Bot. Ver. Bonn, Bot. Ver. (1818), Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Danzig, Westpr. Bot.-zool. Ver. (1878), Jahresber. Dresden, “Flora”: Ges. für Bot. u. Gartenbau (1826), Sitzungsber. Erfurt, Gartenbau Ver. Frankfort, Gartenbau Ges. Freiburg, Bot. Ver. Gorlitz, Gartenbau Ver. Gotha, Thüringer Gartenbau Ver. Klagenfurt, Kärntnerische Gartenbau Ges. Landshut, Bot. Ver. (1864). Meiningen, Ver. f. Pomologie u. Gartenbau. Munich, Bayerische Botanische Ges., Mittheil. (1890). Ratisbon, K. Bayerische Bot. Ges. (1790), Flora (1818, &c.) and Repertorium (1864, &c.). Reutlingen, Pomolog. Inst. Sondershausen, Bot. Ver. Stuttgart, Gartenbau Ges., Flora. Vienna, K. k. Gartenbau Ges.; Botan. Ver., Verhandl. (1851, &c.). Weimar, Ver. f. Blumistik. Würzburg, Bot. Inst., Arbeiten (1871, &c.). Italy: Milan, Soc. Crittog. Ital., Atti (1878, &c.). Belgium: Antwerp, Soc. Roy. d'Hortic. et d'Agr.; Soc. Phytologique, Annales (1864, &c.). Bruges, Soc. d'Hortic. et de la Bot. Brussels, Soc. Roy. de Bot. with State Botanical Garden (1862), Bull. (1862, &c.); Soc. Roy. de Flore; Soc. Centr. d' Arboric, Annales. Liége, Soc. Roy. d'Hortic. Holland: Ghent, Kruidkundig Genootschap Dodonaea (1887), Tijdschr. Leiden, Nederl. Bot. Vereen. Luxembourg, Soc. de Bot., Recueil (1874, &c.). Nimeguen, Nederl. Bot. Vereen, Archief (1871, &c.). Denmark: Copenhagen, Bot.

Forening, Tidsskrift (1866, &c.).
X. Zoology
Societies dealing with natural history in general, or zoology and

botany together, come under class i. The first International Ornithological Congress was held at St Petersburg. The Zoological Society of London (1826, incorporated 1829) is famous for its collection of animals at Regent's Park. It publishes Proceedings (8vo, 1830, &c.) and Transactions (4to, 1835, &c.). In London also are the British Ornithologists' Union (1859); Entomological Society of London (1833), Trans. (1834, &c.); National Fish Culture Association (1883); Malacolog. Soc. (1893). The Concholog. Soc. (1876) meets at Manchester, which also has an Entomolog. Soc. (1902). The Marine Biological Association of Great Britain (1884), for the study of marine food fishes and shell-fish, has a laboratory at Plymouth. The Royal Zoological Society of Ireland (1831) has gardens in the Phoenix Park. There is the British Beekeepers' Association (1874). Australia and New Zealand: Auckland, Acclimatisation Soc. Brisbane, Acclimat. Soc. Christchurch, Acclimat. Soc. Melbourne, Zoolog. and Acclimat. Soc. of Victoria, Report (1861, &c.); Australasian Ornitho. Union (1896), The Emu. Sydney, Acclimat. Soc. of N.S. Wales, Report (1862, &c.); Entomolog. Soc. of N.S.W., Trans. (1863, &c.). Wellington, Westland Nat. and Acclimat. Soc. Africa: Cape Town, Zoolog. Soc. Port Louis (Mauritius), Soc. d'Acclimat.

Canada: Toronto, Entomolog. Soc.; Beekeepers' Assoc.
United States: Cambridge, Nuttall Ornitholog. Club, Bull. (1876)

and Memoirs (1886); and Entomolog. Club, Psyche (1874, &c.); Amer. Soc. Zoologists (1890). Cincinnati Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1870), Journs. (1879). Illinois Central Beekeepers' Association. New York, Entom. Soc. (1892), Journal; N. Y. Zoolog. Soc. (1895), Rep. Guide Book. Pasadena, Cooper Ornith. Club (1893) founded at San Jose, Pacific Avifauna (1900, &c.), The Condor (1899, &c.). Philadelphia, Zoolog. Soc. (1859), Report (1874, &c.); and Amer. Entomolog. Soc. (1859), Proc. (1861-1866), Trans. (1867, &c.). Washington, Amer. Ornith. Union (1883), The Auk (1884, &c.); Biolog. Soc. (1901); and Entomolog. Soc. (1884), Proc. France: Alais, Soc. Séricicole, Bull. (1876, &c.). Amiens, Soc. d'Apiculture, Bull. (1875, &c.). Clermont, Soc. Centr. d'Apicult., Bull. (1875, &c.). Lille, Inst. Zoolog. à Wimereux, Travaux (1877, &c.). Paris, Soc. Nat. d'Acclimat. (1854), Bull. Mensuel (1854, &c.) and Chron. Bimens. (1875, &c.); Soc. Zoolog. de France, Bull. (1876, &c.); Soc. Entomolog. de France, Annales (1832); and Soc. de Biologie (1848), Comptes Rendus (1849, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Wanderversammlung Deutscher Bienenzuchter, Verhandl. (1856, &c.). Bendorf, Akklimat.-Ver. Berlin, Akklimat.-Ver. (1856), Zeitschr. (1858, &c.); Central-Inst. f. Akklimat., Mittheil. (1859, &c.); Deutsche Zoolog. Ges.; Deutsche Ornithol. Ges. (1850), Journal (1853, &c.); Deutsche Fischerei Ver., Publikat. (1871, &c.); Berliner Entomolog. Ges. (1856), Entomolog. Zeitschr. (1857, &c.); D. Entomol. Ges. (1881), Ztschr.; Ver. zum Beförd. des Seidenbaues, Jahresber. (1869, &c.); Physiolog. Ges. (1875), Verhandl. (1877, &c.). Breslau, Physiolog. Inst., Studien (1861, &c.); Ver. f. Schles. Insektenkunde, Zeitschr. (1847, &c.). Brunswick, Deutsche Ornitholog. Ges. Carlsruhe, Badischer Ver. f. Geflügelzucht, Monatsblatt (1872, &c.). Frankenberg, Bienenwirthschaftl. Haupt-Ver., Sächs. Bienenfreund (1865, &c.). Frankfort, Zoolog. Ges., Der Zoolog. Garten (1860, &c.); Deutsche Malakozoolog. Ges. (1868), Jahrbücher (1874-1887) and Nachrichtsblatt (1869, &c.). Halberstadt, Deutsche Ornitholog. Ges. Halle, Ornitholog. Central-Ver. Hamburg, Zoolog. Ges., Ber. (1862, &c.). Hanover, Bienenwirthschaftl. Central-Ver., Centralblatt (1865, &c.). Leipzig, Sächs. Seidenbau Ver., Zeitschr. (1868, &c.). Munich, Entomolog. Ver. (1876); Fischerei Ver., Mittheil. (1876, &c.). Nordlingen, Ver. Deutscher Bienenwirthe, B.-Zeitung (1845, &c.). Ratisbon Zoolog.-mineralog. Ver. (see class i.). Stettin, Ornitholog. Ver. (1873), Jahresber. (1873, &c.); Entomolog. Ver. (1837), Ent. Zeitung (1840, &c.). Trieste, Zoolog. Inst. u. Zoology Station (1875), Arbeiten (1878, &c.). Troppau, Schles. Bienenzucht-Ver. (1873). Vienna, Entomolog. Ver.; Embryolog. Inst., Mittheil. (1871, &c.); Ornitholog. Ver. Würzburg, Zoolog.-zootomisches Inst. (1872), Arbeiten (1874, &c.). Switzerland: Bern, Schweiz. Entomolog. Ges. (1858), Mitteil. (1862,

&c.). Geneva, Assoc. Zoolog. du Léman; Soc. Ornitholog. Suisse
(1865), Bull. (1866, &c.). Zürich, Internat. Entomologenverein (1886)

Societas Enlomologica (1886, &c.). Italy: Casale, Soc. Bacologica, Boll. (1866, &c.). Florence, Soc. Allantina Ital., La Sericoltura (1865, &c.); Soc. Entomolog. Ital., Boll. (1869, &c.). Naples, Zoolog. Station, Mittheil. (1878). Palermo, Soc. di Acclimaz., Atti (1861, &c.). Pisa, Soc. Malacolog. Ital., Boll. (1875, &c.). Rome, Soc. di Pisicolt. Ital. (1872). Belgium: Antwerp, Soc. Roy. de Zoologie (1843) with Jardin Zool. and Mus. Brussels, Soc. Roy. de Zoologie et Malacologique de Belge (1863), Annales (1870, &c.); Soc. Entomolog. de Belgique (1856), Annales and Bull. (1857, &c.). Holland: Amsterdam, K. Zoolog. GenootschapNatura Artis Magistra” (1838), Bijdrogen (1848), Jaarboekje (1852, &c.) and Tijdschr. (1863, &c.), zoolog. garden and museum. The Hague, Nederl. Entomolog. Vereen., Tijdschr. (1857, &c.). Rotterdam, Nederl. Dierkundige Vereen. Tijdschr. (1874, &c.). Norway: Bergen, Selskabet for Norges Fiskerier. Christiania, Det Biol. Selskab. (1894), Aaresber. Sweden: Stockholm, Entomolog. Förening (1879), Ent. Tidskrift (1880, &c.). Russia: Moscow, Acclimat. Soc. St Petersburg, Russian Entomolog. Soc. (1859), Horae societatis entom. ross. Argentine Republic: Buenos Aires, Soc. Zoolog. Argentina, Period.

Zoolog. (1875, &c.); Soc. Entomolog. Argent.
XI. Anthropology
The Congrès International d'Anthropologie et d'Archéologie

Prehistoriques held its first meeting at Neuchâtel in 1866; it issues Comptes rendus (1866, &c.). The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland was founded in 1871 upon the Ethnological Society (1843), which published a Journal (1848-1856) and Transactions (1859-1869), and the Anthropological Society (1863), which issued Memoirs (1863-1869) and the Anthropological Review (1864-1870). The Institute brings out a Journal (1871, &c.).

Sydney, Roy. Anthropolog. Soc. (1896). Bombay, The Gatha Soc. (1903), occasional pamphlets.

United States: Cleveland, Amer. Inst. Anthrop. (1890), Journal. New York, Amer. Ethnolog. Soc. (1842), Trans. (1845-1853) and Bull. (1860-1861); formerly Anthropolog. Inst., Journ. (1871). Washington, Anthropolog. Soc. (1879), Trans. (1882, &c.); Amer. Anthrop. Assoc. (1902), Amer. Anthropologist. Havana (Cuba), Soc. Antrop. France: Grenoble, Soc. dauphinoise d'Ethn. et d'Anthrop. (1894), Bull. (1894, &c.). Lyons, Soc. d'Anthrop. (1881), Bull. (1881, &c.). Paris, Soc. d'Anthropologie (1859; recognized 1864), Bull. and Mém. (1860, &c.); Soc. d'Ethnogr., Annuaire (1862, &c.), and Revue (1869, &c.); Soc. des Traditions Populaires (1886) Revue (1886, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Ges. f. Anthropologie, &c. (1869), Ztschr. (1870, &c.) and Verhandl. (1871, &c.); Deutsche Ges. für Anthrop., Ethn. &c. (1870), Archiv (1866, &c.). Brunswick, Deutsche Ges. f. Anthropologie, Archiv (1870, &c.) and Corr-Blatt (1874, &c.). Budapest, Magyar Néprajzi Társaság (1889), Ethnographia (1889, &c.). Cologne, Ver. zur Förderung des Stadt-Rautenstrauch-Joest Museums für Völkerkunde (1904), Jahresber. (1904, &c.). Görlitz, Ges. für Anthrop. &c. (1888), Jahreshefte. Göttingen, Anthropolog. Ver., Mittheil. (1874, &c.). Kiel, Anthrop. Ver. (1877), Mitteil. (1888, &c.). Leipzig, Ver. f. Anthropolog., Ber. (1871, &c.), afterwards joined to the Ver. der Erdk. Munich, Ges. f. Anthropolog. &c. (1870), Beitr. (1876, &c.). Stuttgart, Anthropolog. Ges. (1871), Fundber. (1893, &c.). Vienna, Anthropolog. Ges. (1870), Mittheil. (1870, &c.). Italy: Florence, Soc. Ital. di Antropologia (1868), Archivio (1871, &c.). Belgium: Brussels, Soc. d'Anthrop., Bull. (1882, &c.). Sweden: Stockholm, Svenska Sällskapet for Antrop. (1873), Tidskrift (1873, &c.). Spain: Madrid, Soc. Antropolog. Esp., Revista (1875 &c.). Russia: St Petersburg, Russian Anthrop. Soc. (1888),

Protokotyzasedanij (1901, &c.).
XII. Sociology (Economic Science, Statistics, Law, Education)
The international societies are the Association Internationale pour

le Progrès des Sciences Sociales and the Congrès International de Statistique which first met at Brussels in 1853. Both have issued Comptes rendus. The Congrès International de Bienfaisance may be traced to a suggestion at the Congrès Pénitentiaire held at Frankfort in 1847. The first meeting took place at Brussels in 1856. The Inst. Internat. de Sociologie (1893) has its headquarters at Paris. The National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (1857) had united with it in 1864 the Society for Promoting the Amendment of the Law. It held a yearly migratory meeting, and published Transactions (1858, &c.) and Social Science (1866, &c.). The Sociological Soc., the Eugenics Education Soc. and the Roy. Economic Soc. are established in London. The Royal Statistical Society (1834) incorporated 1887, publishes a Journal (1839, &c.); Cobden Club (1866), for the diffusion of the political and economical principles with which Cobden's name is associated, has issued a variety of publications; Institute of Actuaries (incorp. 1884); Institute of Chartered Accountants (1880); Institute of Bankers (1879); the Society of Incorporated Accountants and Auditors (1885), and the Chartered Institute of Secretaries, also meet in London. There are also the Manchester Statistical Society (1833), with Transactions; the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland and the Scottish Society of Economists (1897), both meeting at Edinburgh; and the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland (1847), with a Journal at Dublin. After the Inns of Court (q.v.), the most important of British legal societies is the Law Society (1827, incorporated 1832, reincorp. 1845); it began courses of lectures for students in 1833 and was appointed registrar of solicitors ten years later, and obtained supplementary charters in 1845 and 1878. This society has a fine building, with library and examination hall in Chancery Lane London. There are over 70 provincial societies, most of them being associated with the parent body. The Verulam Society (1846) published a few books and came to an end. The Selden Society established in 1887 for the promotion of the study of the history of law, prints ancient records. The headquarters of the Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations are in London but conferences are held in various continental towns. The Chartered Institute of Patent Agents (founded 1882, incorporated 1891) issues Transactions. The Juridical Society of Edinburgh (1773) published five editions of a Complete System of Conveyancing. The Ascham Society was founded in 1879 for the improvement of educational methods; and the Society for the Development of the Science of Education

(1875) issued Transactions.
United States: Baltimore, Amer. Pol. Sc. Assoc. (1903), Proc.

Boston, Amer. Soc. Sc. Assoc.; Amer. Statist. Assoc. (1839), Collections (1847, &c.). Cambridge, Amer. Econ. Assoc. (1886). New York, Am. Inst of Social Service, Social Service (1899, &c.); Actuarial Soc. of Amer. (1899); Philadelphia, Amer. Acad. Pol. and Social Sc. (1899), Annals; American Bar Assoc., Reports; Assn. of Amer. Law Schools (1901). Washington, Amer. Soc. of Int. Law (1906), Journal; Nat. Educ. Assoc. (1857), Proc. France: Grenoble, Soc. de Statist. (1838), Bull. (1838, &c.); Marseilles, Soc. de Statist. (1827), Répertoire (1837, &c.); Soc. Sc. industr. (1871), Bull. (1872, &c.). Paris, Soc. Int. des Études Pratiques d'Écon. (1856, recognized 1869); Soc. Fran. de Statist. Univ. (1829), Journal issued jointly with Acad. Nat. since 1849; Soc. de Statist. de Paris (1860, recognized 1869), Journ. (1860, &c.); Soc. de Legislation Comparée (1869, recognized 1873) Bull. Annuaire de Lég. Franç., and Ann. de Lég. Étran.; Soc. pour l'Instr. Élément (1815, recognized 1831), Bull.; Soc. de Linguistique (1864), Mém. (1868, &c.); Soc. de l'Enseignement Supérieure (1878), Rev. (1881, &c.); Soc. d'Econ. Sociale (1856), Les Ouvriers des deux mondes (1857, &c.), La Reforme sociale (1881, &c.); Soc. d'Econ. Pol. (1842) Annales (1846-1847), Bull. (1888, &c.); Soc. de l'École des Chartes (1839), Mém. St Maixent, Soc. de Statist. des Deux-Sèvres. Toulouse, Acad. de Légis. (1851), Rec. (1851, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Debreczen, Magyar Kir Gazdasági Akad. (1868) Berlin, Volkswirths. Ges. (1860), Volkswirths. Zeitfragen (1879, &c.); Ver. f. deutsche Volkswirths. (1876), Ztschr. (1880, &c.); Ver. f Förderung d. Handelsfreiheit (1878), Mittheil. (1879, &c.); Ver. f. d. Statist.; Jurist. Ges. (1859), Jahresber. (1863, &c.). Dresden, Statishscher Ver. (1831), Mittheil. Frankfort, Statistische Ges.; Juristische Ges. (1866), Rundschau (1867, &c.); Akad. für Sozial- u. Handelswissenschaften (1901). Freiburg, Badische Heimat (1893), Volkeskunde. Halle, Kantgesellschaft (1904), Kantstudien. Laibach, Jurist. Ges. Leipzig, Ver. f. wiss. Pädagogik, Jahrbuch and Mittheil. Italy: Tortona, Soc. di Storia Economia, Boll. Belgium: Brussels, Ligue de l'Enseignement (1864), Bull.; Soc. Centr. des Instituteurs Belges (1860), Le Progrès; Inst. Solvay de Sociologie (1901). Holland: Amsterdam, Ver. voor de Statist. in Nederland, Jaarboekje (1849, &c.) and Jaarcijfers (1882, &c.). Spain: Madrid, Junta Estadist; R. Acad. de Jurisprudencia y Legis. (1763, 1826); R. Acad. de Ciencias Mor. y Pol. (1857). Russia: Moscow, Juridical Soc. St Petersburg, Pedagogical Soc. Egypt: Cairo, Bureau Central de Statist. Havana (Cuba), Soc. Econ. de Amigos del Pais

(1792), Memorias. Japan: Tokio, Statist. Soc.
XIII. Medicine and Surgery
The first meeting of the Congrès Médical International was held at

Paris in 1867; a Bulletin has been issued annually since 1868, and the first Surgical Congress was held in Paris in 1885. The first Congrès Périodique Internat. d'Ophthalmologie took place at Brussels in 1857. The Royal Colleges of Physicians and of Surgeons of London, Edinburgh and Dublin do not come within our scope. The Medical Society of London (1773) is the oldest in the metropolis; it has issued Memoirs (1787-1805), Transactions (1810, &c.), and Proceedings (1872, &c.). The Royal Society of Medicine was formed, by Royal charter in 1907 by the amalgamation of the following societies: Roy. Med. and Chir. Soc. (1805), Pathological Soc. (1846), Epidemiological Soc. (1850), Odontol. Soc. of Gt. Britain (1856), Obstetrical Soc. (1858), Clinical Soc. (1867), Dermatological Soc. of London (1882), British Gynaecological Soc. (1884), Neurolog. Soc. (1886), British Laryngol. Rhinol. and Otological Assoc. (1888), Laryngol. Soc. (1893), Soc. of Anaesthetists (1893), Dermatol. Soc. of Gt. Brit. and Ireland (1894), Otological Soc. (1899), Soc. for Study of Diseases in Children (1900), British Electro-therapeutic Soc. (1901) and the Therapeutical Soc. (1902). Most of these societies have separate Transactions or Proceedings. Other London societies (past and present) include the Abernethian Society (1795), which issues Proceedings; British Dental Association (1880), with a Journal (1880, &c.); British Homoeopathic Association (1859), with Annals (1860, &c.); British Medical Association (1832), which has more than forty home and colonial branches, and publishes British Medical Journal (1857, &c.); Hahnemann Publishing Society (1852), Materia Medica (1852, &c.); Harveian Society (1831); Hunterian Society (1819), Trans.; Lister

Institute (incorp. 1891); Medico-Legal Soc. of London, Trans.;
Medico-Psycholog. Assn. of Gt. Britain and Ireland (1841, incorp.

1895); New Sydenham Society (1858), which published Biennial Retrospect (1867, &c.), and translations and reprints of books and papers of value, succeeded the old Sydenham Society (1844-1858), which issued 40 vols.; Ophthalmological Society (1880), Trans.; Pharmaceutical Society (1841), with museum, Pharmaceutical Journal (1842, &c.); Physiological Association (1876), Journ. of Physiology (1878, &c.); Röntgen Soc., Journal; Royal Institute of Public Health (1886, incorp. 1892), Journ. Royal Sanitary Institute (1876, incorp. 1888), the council of which appoints examiners, directs Parkes Museum, founded in 1876 in memory of Dr E. A. Parkes; Society of Medical Officers of Health (1856), Trans., and Public Health; Soc. of Public Analysts, Analyst. The provincial societies are very numerous and include: Bradford, Med. Chir. Soc. (1863); Bristol, Med. Chir. Soc.; Cardiff, Med. Soc. (1870); Liverpool, Sch. of Tropical Med. (1898, incorp. 1905), Memoirs; Manchester, Med. Soc. (1848); Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North. and Durham Med. Soc. (1848). Dublin, Roy. Acad. of Med. in Ireland (1882), Trans. (1883, &c.); Pharmac. Soc. of Ireland (1875). Edinburgh, Roy. Med. Soc. (1737; charter 1778); Harveian Soc. (1752); Medico- Chirurg. Soc. (1821), Trans. (1824, &c.); and Obstetrical Soc. (1840). Aberdeen, Med. Chir. Soc. (1789). Glasgow, Medico-Chirurg. Soc. (1866), based upon Med. Soc. and Med.-Chirurg. Soc. (both 1814), joined by Path. Soc. in 1907.

Australia: Melbourne, Med. Soc. of Victoria, Austr. Med. Journ. (1856, &c.). Canada: Montreal, Union Méd. du Canada, Revue (1872, &c.); Canada Med. Assoc., Trans. (1877, &c.). India: Bombay, Med. and Physical Soc., Trans. (1838, &c.). Calcutta, Med.

Soc. Trans. (1883, &c.).
United States: Amer. Pub. Health Assoc., Reports (1873, &c.);

Amer. Dental Assoc., Trans. (1860, &c.); and Amer. Inst. of Homoeop., Trans. (1878, &c.). The headquarters of the American Medical Association (1847) are at Chicago; it publishes a Journal. The American Surgical Association (1880) unites at Washington every third year with the Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons. The State medical associations include those of Alabama, Trans. (1869, &c.); Georgia, Trans. (1873, &c.); Maine, Trans. (1853, &c.); Missouri, Trans. (1851, &c.); and South Carolina, Trans. The State medical societies include those of Arkansas, Trans. (1877, &c.); California, Trans. (1870, &c.); Illinois, Trans. (1851, &c.); Kansas, Trans. (1867, &c.); Michigan, Trans. (1869, &c.); Minnesota, Trans. (1874, &c.); Nebraska, Trans. (1869, &c.); New Jersey, Trans. (1859, &c.); Pennsylvania, Trans. (1851, &c.); Rhode Island, Trans. (1877, &c.); Texas, Trans. (1874); and Wisconsin, Trans. (1880, &c.). To these have to be added the following town associations. Albany, Med. Soc., Journal (1807, &c.). Baltimore, Med. and Chirurg. Faculty of Maryland, Trans. (1856, &c.). Boston, Amer. Gynaecolog. Soc., Trans. (1876, &c.); Mass. Medico-Legal Soc., Trans. (1878, &c.). Denver, Acad. of Med. (1903). New York, Acad. of Med., Trans. (1847, &c.) and Bull. (1860, &c.); Med. Soc., Trans. (1815, &c.); Medico-Chirurg. Soc., Trans. (1878, &c.); Amer. Surg. Assoc., Trans. (1883, &c.); Medico-Legal Soc., Sanitarian (1873, &c.); Amer. Ophthalmolog. Soc., Trans. (1865, &c.); Path. Soc. (1844), Trans. (1875-1879), Proc. (1888, &c.). Philadelphia, Med. Soc., Trans. (1850, &c.); Obstet. Soc., Trans. (1869, &c.); Amer. Pharm. Assoc., Proc.; Patholog. Soc. (1857), Trans. (1897, &c.); Coll. of Physicians (1787); Amer. Soc. of Tropical Med. (1903). Richmond, Med.

Soc., Trans. (1871, &c.).
France: Besançon, Soc. de Méd. (1845), Bull. (1845, &c.).

Bordeaux, Soc. de Méd. (1798), Journ. (1829, &c.); Soc. de Pharm. (1834), Bull. (1860, &c.); Soc. de Méd. et de Chirurg.; Soc. d'Anat. et de Physiol. (1879), Bull. (1880). Caen, Soc. de Méd. (1799; known by its present name since 1875), Journal (1829), Mém. (1869). Chambery, Soc. de Méd. (1848), Comptes rend. (1848, &c.) and Bull. (1859, &c.). Grenoble, Soc. de Méd. Havre, Soc. de Pharm. (1858), Mém. Lille, Soc. de Méd. (1843), Bull. (1845, &c.). Lyons, Soc. Nat. de Méd. (1789), Le Lyon méd. (1869, &c.). Marseilles, Soc. de Méd. (1800), Comptes rend. (1826-1853) and Le Mars. méd. (1869, &c.); Soc. Méd.-Chirurg. (1872). Paris, Soc. de Méd. Pratique (1808), Bull.; Acad. Nat. de Méd. (1820); Soc. Nat. de Chirurg. (1843, reorganized 1859), Mém. (1847, &c.) and Bull. (1851, &c.); Soc. Anat. (1803), Bull. (1826, &c.); Soc. Clinique, Bull. (1877, &c.); Soc. Méd. des Hopitaux, Bull. (1849, &c.); Soc. Méd. Legale; Soc. de Pharm. (1803), Journ. (1815, &c.); Soc. de Thérapeutique; Soc. Fran. de Hygiene; Soc. Centr. de Méd. Vétérinaire (1844), Bull.; Assoc. Int. de l'Inst. Marcy (1898) (for examining physiological methods and apparatus), Bull., Travaux. Rouen, Soc. de Méd. (1821), Union Méd. (1861, &c.); Soc. Libre des Pharmaciens (1802), Bull. Toulouse, Soc. de Méd. (1801), Bull. and Revue (1867, &c.). Tours, Soc. Méd. (1801). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Deutscher Arztevereinsbund (1872), Verhandl.; Central Ver. d. Zahnärzte (1859), Mittheil.; D. Veterinärrath (1874); D. Apotheker-Ver. (1820), Archiv (1822, &c.). Berlin, Ver. f. Heilkunde (1832), Magazin (1835, &c.); Ges. f. Geburtshulfe u. Gynaekologie (1876), Ztschr. (1877, &c.); Ges. f. Heilkunde (1855); Berl. Med. Ges. (1860), Verhandl. (1865, &c.); Physiolog. Ges. (1875), Verhandl. (1877, &c.);D. Ver. f. Med. Statistik (1868); Ver. Homöop. Ärzte (1871), Ztschr. (1882, &c.); D. Ges. f. Chirurgie (1872), Verhandl. Bonn, Verband der Ärztl. Vereine (1865). Breslau. Ver. f. Physiolog. Heilkunde (1848), Ztschr. (1850, &c.); Verband d. Schles. Arzte-Ver. (1878). Cologne, Rhein. Med.-Chirurg. Ver. (1848), Organ (1852, &c.). Darmstadt, Ärztl. Kreisver. (1844). Dresden, Ges. f. Natur- u. Heil-Kunde (1818), Jahresber. (1848, &c.). Erlangen, Physik.-Med. Soc. (1808), Sitzungsber. (1870, &c.). Frankfort, Ärztl. Ver. (1845), Jahresber. (1857, &c.). Hamburg, Ärztl. Ver. (1816); Deutsche Ges. fur Gesch. der Medizin (1901), Mitteil. Hanover, Ver. Analyt. Chemiker (1878). Heidelberg, Ophthal. Ges. (1857). Jena, Med.-naturwissenschaftliche Ges. (1854), Zeitschr. (1874, &c.). Königsberg, Ver. f. wiss. Heilkunde (1851). Leipzig, Med. Ges. (1829); Ges. f. Geburtshülfe (1854), Mittheil.; Homöop. Central-Ver. (1829); Magdeburg, D. Chirurgen-Ver. (1844), Ztschr. (1847, &c.). Munich, Ärztl. Ver. (1833), Int.-Blatt (1854, &c.). Strasburg, Soc. de Méd. (1842), Mém. (1850, &c.); Soc. Vétérin. (1864); Medizinisch.-Naturwissenschaftlicher Ver. (1873). Stuttgart, Württemb. Ärztl. Ver. (1831), Corr.-Blatt (1832, &c.); Hahnemannia (1868), Mittheil. (1873, &c.); Apotheker-Ver. (1822), Pharm. Wochenblatt (1861, &c.). Vienna, K. k. Ges. der Ärzte, Ztschr. (1844, &c.); Ges. für innere Medizin u. Kinderheilkunde, Med. Wochenschrift. Weimar, Med.-naturwiss. Ver. (1863). Würzburg, Physikal.-med. Ges. (1849), Verhandl. (1850, &c.). Switzerland: Geneva, Soc. Méd. Zürich, Soc. de Méd.; Schweiz. Apotheker-Ver. Italy: Bologna, Soc. Med.-chirurg. Genoa, Accad. Med.-chirurg. Milan, Soc. Ital. d' Igiena. Modena, Soc. Med.-chirurg. Naples, Real Accad. Med.-chirurg. Palermo, R. Accad. delle Sc. Med. (1649), Atti (1889, &c.). Rome, R. Istit. Fisico-patologico. Turin, Accad. Real Med.-chirurg. Belgium: Antwerp, Soc. de Méd. (1839), Annales. Brussels, Acad. Roy. de Méd. (1841), Bull. (1841, &c.) and Mém. (1843, &c.); Soc. Roy. de Pharm. (1845), Bull.; Soc. d'Anat. Patholog. (1846), Annales; Soc. Belge de Méd. Homoeop.; Soc. Roy. des Sc. Méd. et Nat. (1822), Journal (1842, &c.), Annales (1892, &c.), Bulletin (1843, &c.); Inst. Solvay de Physiol. (1894), with electro-physiological, chemical, embryological and other laboratories, and lecture hall. Ghent, Soc. de Méd. (1834), Annales. Liége, Soc. Méd.-chirurg. Holland: Amsterdam, Genootschap ter Bevordering der Genees- en Heel-Kunde, Verhandel. (1841, &c.); Nederl. Maatschappij ter Bevord. der Pharmacie. Batavia (Java), Geneeskundige Vereeniging. Denmark: Copenhagen, K. Med. Selskab; Veterinaer Selskab, Norway: Christiania, Med. Selskab, Magazin (1840, &c.). Sweden: Stockholm, Farmaceutiska Inst.; Svenska Läkaresällskapet (1808), Handl. (1813, &c.). Upsala, Läkareförenig, Förhandl. (1865, &c.). Spain: Madrid, R. Acad. Med. (1732). Portugal: Lisbon, Soc. de Sc. Med. (1835), Jornal (1835, &c.); Soc. Pharm. Lusitana. Russia: Dorpat, Pharm. Soc. Helsingfors, Finska Läkaresällskapet (1835), Handl. (1841). Moscow, Phys.-med. Soc. Riga, Soc. of Practical Physicians. St Petersburg, Soc. of Practical Physicians; Imp. Pharm. Soc. Vilna, Imp. Med. Soc. (1805), Protokoly. Warsaw, Med.-Chirurg. Soc. Tomsk (Siberia), Soc. of Naturalists and Physicians (1889), Protocol. Rumania: Jassy, Soc. of Naturalists and Physicians (1830) , Buletinul. Greece: Athens, Soc. Méd. Turkey: Constantinople, Soc. Imp. de Méd.; Soc. de Pharm. Central and South America: Buenos Aires, Asoc. Med. Caracas, Escuela Med. Guadalajara (Mexico), Soc. Med. Merida (Mexico), Soc. Med. Mexico, Acad. de Med.; Soc. Med. Monte Video, Soc. de Med. Rio de Janeiro, Institute Oswaldo Cruz, formerly Instituto de Manguinhos (for the promotion of experimental pathology); Soc. Med. e Cirurgia. Santiago, Soc. Med. Japan: Tokyo, Soc. for Adv. of Med. Sc., Trans. (1885,

&c.).
XIV. Engineering and Architecture
The principal English society dealing with mechanical science is

the Institution of Civil Engineers (established in 1818, incorporated in 1828), which publishes Transactions (4to, 1836-1842) and Minutes of Proceedings (8vo, 1837, &c.). George Stephenson was the first president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, which was founded at Birmingham in 1847, removed to London in 1877, and registered under the Companies Act in 1878. It holds migratory meetings and publishes Proceedings. The Society of Engineers (1854), with Transactions (1861, &c.); the Civil and Mechanical Engineers’ Society (1859); the Iron and Steel Institute (1869, incorp. 1899), with Journal and Mem.; the Surveyors' Institution (1868, incorporated in 1881), which publishes Transactions and holds professional examinations; the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (1866), the Institution of Electrical Engineers (1871, incorp. 1883), Journal; the Institution of Mining Engineers has associated with it many branch institutions in the provinces, Journal; the Institute of Gas Engineers (1863); the Illuminating Engineers' Soc. (1909); the Institute of Metals; and the Instn. of Mining and Metallurgy, meet in London. There are institutions in the provinces at Bradford, Bristol, Cardiff (1857, incorp. in 1881), Chesterfield (1871), Dublin (1835, incorp. in 1857), Glasgow (1857, with Transactions), Liverpool (1875), Middlesbrough (1864), Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1852, incorp. in 1876, with Transactions), Nottingham (1871), Dudley (1866), and Belfast (1892).

The leading architectural society is the Royal Institute of British Architects, founded in 1834, incorporated in 1837, and granted new charters in 1887 and 1908. It appoints examining professional boards and publishes Transactions (1836; 1879, &c.) and Proceedings (1879, &c.). There are also the Associations of Birmingham (1873), Edinburgh (1850), Exeter (1843), Glasgow (1868), Leeds (1876), Leicestershire (1855), Liverpool (1848), Manchester (1875),

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the societies of Manchester (1865) and Oxford (1837).
The Architectural Association of London publishes a Sketch Book

(1870, &c.). The Architectural Publishing Society (1848) has published Essays (1848-1852), and since 1852 has been bringing out a Dictionary of Architecture. There is also a Society of Architects (1884, incorp. 1893). The Roy. Inst. of Architects of Ireland meets in Dublin and publishes a Journal.

United States: New York, Inst. of Mining Engineers.; Amer. Soc. of Civ. Eng., Trans.; Amer. Soc. of Mech. Eng., Trans.; Amer. Inst. of Min. Eng.; Amer. Inst. of Architects (1857); Washington, Society of Naval Eng. France: Lyons, Soc. Acad. d'Arch. (1830), Annales (1867, &c.). Paris, Soc. des Ingénieurs Civils, Annuaire (1848, &c.); Soc. Cent. des Architects, Bull. (1851, &c.) and Annales (1875, &c.); it has held a congress since 1875. Saint-Étienne, Soc. de l'Industrie Min. (1855), Bull. Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Ver. Deutscher Ingenieure, Ztschr. (1857) and Wochenschrift (1877, &c.); Ver. f. Eisenbahnkunde; Akad. des Bauwesens; Architekten-Ver., Ztschr. Breslau, Ver. f. Ges. der Bild. Künste (1862). Constance, Münsterbau Ver. (1881). Dresden, Sachs. Ingen.- u. Architekten-Ver., Protok. Hanover, Arch.- u. Ingen. Ver., Ztschr. Klagenfurt, Berg- und Hütten-Männischer Ver. Leoben, K. k. Berg-Akad. Munich, Bayr. Arch.- u. Ingen.-Ver., Ztschr. Prague, Arch.- und Ingen.-Ver. Vienna, Österr. Ingen.- u. Arch. Ver., Ztschr.; Ges. f. Bild. Künste. Switzerland: Lausanne, Soc. Vaudoise des Ingén. et des Arch. Zürich, Ver. Schweiz. Ingen. u. Arch. Italy: Turin, Soc. degli Ingeneri, Atti (1868-1870). Belgium: Brussels, Assoc. des Ingen. Liége, Assoc. des Ingén. (1847), Annuaire (1851, &c.). Holland: Amsterdam, Maatschappij ter Bevordering der Bouwkunst, Bouwkundige Bijdragen (1843, &c.). The Hague, Kon. Inst, van Ingen., Verslag (1848, &c.), Verhandel. (1848, &c.) and Tijdschr. (1870, &c.). Spain and Portugal: Lisbon, Assoc. dos Engenheiros Civ. Port.; Soc. dos Architectos e Archeologos.

Madrid, Soc. Central de Arquitectos.
XV. Naval and Military Science
The Royal United Service Institution, first known as the Naval and

Military Library and Museum (1831), took the name of the United Service Institution in 1839, and was incorporated in 1860; its professional museum is housed in the banqueting hall at Whitehall; it publishes a Journal (1857, &c.). The Institution of Naval Architects (1860) publishes Transactions (4to, 1860, &c.). The Royal Artillery Institution (1838), which issues Minutes of Proceedings (1858, &c.), is at Woolwich, and the Royal Engineers' Institute (1873), which issues Royal Engineers' Professional Papers, at Chatham. The Navy Records Soc. (1893) publishes works connected with the history of the British Navy. Canada: Toronto, Military Inst.

India: Simla, United Service Institution.
United States: New York, Military Service Inst. (1878), Journal

(1879, &c.); Soc. of Naval Architects and Marine Eng., Proc. Annapolis, U.S. Naval Institute (1873), Proc. France: Paris, Réunion des Officiers, now Cercle Militaire, Bull. (1871, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Munich, Militär. Ges. (1868), Jahrbuch. (1871, &c.). Vienna, K. k. Milit.-Geogr. Inst., Arbeiten (1871, &c.). Holland: Utrecht, Vereen. tot Verspreiding van Kennis aangaande s'Lands Verdediging, Jaarsverslag (1872, &c.) and Werken. Norway: Christiania, Militaere Samfund, Nordsk Milit. Tidsskrift (1848, &c.). Denmark: Copenhagen, Krigsvidenskabelige Selskab, Milit.

Tidsskrift (1872, &c.).
XVI. Agriculture and Trades
The Royal Agricultural Society of England began as the English

Agricultural Society in 1838 and was incorporated in 1840. It holds annually one migratory meeting in some part of England or Wales and meetings in London, where are its headquarters; it publishes a Journal (1840, &c.). Among provincial agricultural societies and associations may be mentioned—Aberdeen, Roy. Northern Agr. Soc. (1843). Arbroath, Angus Agr. Assoc. Banbury (1834). Basingstoke, Roy. Counties Agr. Soc. (1859). Bath, Bath and West of Engl. Soc. and Southern Counties Assoc. (founded in 1777, enlarged in 1852, and reorganized in 1866), Letters and Papers (1780-1816) and Journal (1852, &c.). Belfast, Chemico-Agr. Soc. of Ulster (1845), Proc.; N.E. Agr. Assoc. of Ireland. Birkenhead, Wirral and Birkenhead Agr. Soc. (1842). Brecknock (1855). Carluke (1833). Chelmsford, Essex Agr. Soc. (1858). Chertsey (1833). Doncaster (1872). Dublin, Roy. Agr. Soc. of Ireland (1841). Edinburgh, Highland and Agr. Soc. of Scotland (1784, incorporated in 1787), Trans. (1799, &c.). Halifax (1839, enlarged in 1858). Ipswich, Suffolk Agr. Assoc. (1831). Otley, Wharfedale Agr. Soc. Paisley, Renfrewshire Agr. Soc. (1802). Warwick. Worcester (1838). Africa: Cape Town, Agr. Soc. Australia: Sydney, Agr. Soc. of N. S. Wales. British Guiana: Georgetown, Roy. Agr. and Commercial Soc. Canada: Montreal, Soc. d'Agr. India: Calcutta, Agr. and Hortic. Soc., Journ. (1842,

&c.).
United States: There were agricultural societies formed at

Philadelphia and in South Carolina in 1785. The New York Soc. for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts and Manufactures (1791), the Massachusetts Soc. for Prom. Agriculture (l792), and Columbian Agr. Soc. (1809), issued publications. Albany, State Agr. Soc. (1832), The Cultivator and Journal. Atlanta, State Agr. Soc. Boston, Inst. of Technology. Hoboken, Stevens Inst, of Technol. Madison, State Agr. Soc., Trans. (1852, &c.). Sacramento, Soc. of Agr. and Hortic. San Francisco, Agr. and Hort. Soc. Troy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.

(1824). Worcester Polytechnic Institute (1865), Journ. (1897, &c.).
France: Algiers, Soc. d'Agr. (1840), Bull. Agen, Soc. d'Agr.

(1776), Rec. (1800, &c.). Amiens, Soc. Industrielle (1861), Bull. Angers, Soc. d'Agr. (1799), formerly Acad. d'Angers, Proc.-verb. (1846-1854), Mém. (1831, &c.), Documents (1896, &c.). Bordeaux, Soc. d'Agr. Boulogne, Soc. d'Agr. Caen, Assoc. Normande pour l'Agr., l'Industrie, &c. (1831), Annuaire (1835, &c.); Soc. d'Agr. et de Commerce (1762), Mém. (1853-1858) and Bull. (1827, &c.). Châlons-sur-Marne, Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1750), Comptes rendus (1807-1855), Mém. (1855, &c.). Douai, Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1799), Souv. (1861-1885), Mém. (1826, &c.). Elbeuf, Soc. Industr. (1858), Bull. Grenoble, Soc. d'Agr. et d'Hortic. (1835), Sud-Est (1855, &c.). Le Mans, Soc. du Materiel Agr. (1857), Bull. Lyons, Soc. des Sc. Industr. (1862), Annales. Montpellier, Soc. d'Agr. (1799), Bull. (1808, &c.). Nancy, Soc. Centr. d'Agr. Paris, Soc. Nat. d'Agr. de France (1761; reconstructed in 1878 with a view of advising Government on agricultural matters), Mém. and Bull. Perpignan, Soc. Agr. Scientifique et Litt. (1833), Bull. (1834, &c.). Reims, Soc. Industr. (1833), Bull. (1858, &c.). Rouen, Soc. Industr. (1872), Bull.; Soc. Libre d'Émulation, Commerce et Industrie (1790), Bull. (1797). Saint-Jean-d'Angély, Soc. d'Agr. (1819), Bull. (1833, &c.). St Quentin, Soc. Industr. (1868), Bull. Toulouse, Soc. d'Agr. Vesoul, Soc. d Encouragement d'Agr. (1883), Bull. Germany and Austria-Hungary: The migratory Congress Deutscher Volkswirthe first met at Gotha in 1858. Agram, Kroatisch-Slav. Landwirths. Ges., Blätter. Augsburg, Landwirths. Ver., Landw. Blätter. Berlin, Vereinigt. Berliner Kaufleute u. Industr.; Bonn, Landwirthsch. Central-Ver. Bremen, Landwirths. Ver. Breslau, Landwirths. Central- Ver.; Schles. Central Gewerbe-Ver. Budapest, Ungar. Ackerbau Ges., Mittheil.; Industrielle Ges. Cassel, Landwirths. Central-Ver., Mittheil. Cracow, Ackerbau Ges., Annalen. Danzig, Volkswirths. Ges. (1850). Darmstadt, Landwirths. Ver., Ztschr. Dresden, K. Ökonomie Ges.; K. Sächs. Polytechnicum. Fürth, Gewerbe-Ver. Gratz, K. k. Steiermarkische Landwirths. Ges. Greifswald, Baltischer Central-Ver. Halle, Landwirths. Central-Ver. Hanover, Gewerbe-Ver. Innsbruck, K. k. Landwirths. Ges., Wochenschr.; Kärnt. Industrie- u. Gewerbe-Ver. Jena, Landwirths. Inst. Kassa, Magyar Kir. Gazdasági Akad. or Academy for Agriculture. Klausenburg, Magyar Kir. Gazdasági Akad. (1869). Königsberg, Ostpreuss. Landwirths. Central-Ver. Leipzig, Landwirths. Kreis-Ver.; Polytechn. Ges. Linz, K. k. Landwirths. Ges. Lübeck, Landwirths. Ver., Mittheil. Mühlhausen, Soc. Industr., Bull. Munich, Landwirths. Kreis-Ver.; Polytechn. Ver. Nuremberg, Polytechn. Ver. Prague, Böhmischer Gewerbe-Ver.; Industrie Ges., Mittheil. and Annalen. Ratisbon, Landwirths. Kreis-Ver., Bauernfreund. Stuttgart, K. Württemb. Central-Stelle, Wochenblatt. Trieste, Ackerbau Ges. Tübingen, Landwirths. Ver. Vienna, K. k. Reichs Landwirths. Ges., Ztschr. Wiesbaden, Gewerbe-Ver. Switzerland: Bern, Ökonom. Ges. Lausanne, Soc. d'Agr. de la Suisse Romande. Zürich, Ver. f. Landwirths. u. Gartenbau. Italy: Bologna, Soc. Agraria, Annali. Cagliari, Soc. Agr. ed Econom. Florence, Soc. Econom. ed Agr., Rendiconti. Milan, Soc. Agr. di Lombardia; Soc. Gen. degli Agricolt. Ital.; Soc. d'Incoragg. di Arti e Mestieri, Discorsi. Perugia, Soc. Econom. ed Agr., Atti. Turin, Accad. Reale di Agricolt.; Assoc. Agr. Ital., Esercitazioni. Verona, Accad. d' 'Agricolt. Belgium: Soc. Centr. d'Agricult. (1854), Bull. Ghent, Soc. Roy. d'Agr. et de Bot. Liége, Soc. d'Agr., Journ. (1850, &c.). Verviers, Soc. Industr. et Commerc. (1863), Bull. Holland: Amsterdam, Aardrijskundig Genootschap; Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt. Denmark: Copenhagen, K. Landhuusholdnings Selskab; Det Statist. Tabelvaerk. Norway: Christiania, Polytekniske Forening. Sweden: K. Landtbruks Akademien. Spain and Portugal: Barcelona, Soc. Econom., Actas. Lisbon, Inst. Real de Agric.; Soc. Promotora de Industr. Madrid, Soc. Econom. Matritense, Anales. Oporto, Acad. Polytechn. Russia: Dorpat, K. Livländische Ökonom. Ges., Jahrbuch. Kazan, Imp. Econom. Soc. Moscow, Imp. Soc. of Agriculturists. Odessa, Imp. Agronom. Soc. of S. Russia. Riga, Technical Soc. St Petersburg, Imp. Econom. Soc., Trans.; Technical Soc. Rumania: Bucharest, Soc. Politechnicǎ (1881), Buletinul. South America: Rio de

Janeiro, Soc. de Agr.
XVII. Literature, History and Archaeology
The Congrès International des Orientalistes first met at Paris in 1873.

The Congrès Bibliographique International held its first meeting in 1878, and the Congrès des Américanistes its first meeting in 1875. The first Internat. Conference of Librarians took place in London in 1877. Congresses of Archivists, Librarians and Bibliographers were held at Brussels in 1910. The Royal Society of Literature (1823, incorporated in 1825) with Transactions (4to, 1829-1839; 8vo, 1843, &c.), and the Royal Asiatic Society (1823), with Journal (1834, &c.), have their headquarters in London, as well as the following literary societies, all of which issue publications: Aristotelian (1879), Ballad (1868), Chaucer (1868), Dante (1881), Early English Text (1864), East India Association (1866), Hellenic Studies (1879), Incorp. Soc. of Authors (1884), Institute of Journalists, Irish Lit., Japan (1892), Library Association (1877), Library Assistants (1895), Malone (1906), Oriental Translation Fund (1828), Pali Text (1882), Philological (1842), Roxburghe Club (1812), Shorthand, Viking Club (1892), Wyclif (1882). The Lancashire and Cheshire Historic

Society (1848), at Liverpool, the Manchester Literary Club, with
Transactions and Papers (1874, &c.), and the Manx Society (1858), at

Douglas, may also be mentioned. In Glasgow are the Ballad Club (1876), and the Scottish Soc. of Lit. and Art (1886), and in Dublin the Nat. Lit. Soc. of Ireland (1892).

The oldest and most important society in England dealing with history and archaeology is the Society of Antiquaries of London, which enthusiasts trace to an association founded by Archbishop Parker in 1572. The meetings were not publicly recommenced until 1707; the present body was incorporated in 1751; it publishes Vetera Monumenta (fol., 1747, &c.), Archaeologia (4to, 1770, &c.), and Proceedings (8vo, 1849, &c.). The Royal Archaeological Institute (1843), issuing the Archaeological Journal (1845, &c.); the British Archaeological Association (1843), with Journal (1846, &c.); the Royal Numismatic Society (1836), issuing the Numismatic Chronicle (1838, &c.); and the Royal Historical Society (1868), publishing Transactions, and the works of the Camden Society (1838), belong to London, as well as the following societies, all of which issue publications: Bibliographical (1892), British School at Athens, British School at Rome, British Record (1888, incorp. 1893, incl. Index Soc. 1878). Canterbury and York Catholic Record (1904), Egypt Expl. Fund (1883), Genealog. and Biogr., Cymmrodorion (1751-1773, revived in 1820), Dilettanti (1734), Folk Lore (1879), Harleian (1869), Huguenot (1885), London and Middlesex Archaeol. (1855), London Topogr. Soc., Middlesex County Records (1884), Palaeographical, Palestine Expl. Fund, Parish Registers, Pipe Roll (1883), Soc. Bibl. Archaeol. (1870), Soc. for Prot. Anc. Buildings (1877). Outside London are the Roy. Soc. of Antiquaries of Ireland founded in 1849 as the Kilkenny Arch. Soc., changed to Roy. Hist. and Arch. Assn. in 1869 and to present title in 1890; the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1780), at Edinburgh, and the Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society, at Dublin. Among others are—Aberdeen, New Spalding Club (1886); Bedfordshire Archaeological and Architect. Soc. (1844); Bristol, Bristol and Gloucester Arch. Soc. (1876); Cambrian Arch. Assoc. (1846); Cambridge Antiq. Soc. (1840); Carlisle, Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. (1866); Devizes, Wiltshire Arch. and Nat. H. Soc. (1853); Durham, Surtees Soc. (1834); Colchester, Essex Arch. Soc. (1852); Edinburgh, Bibliogr. Soc. (1890), Scottish Hist. (1886); Exeter, Diocesan Arch. Soc. (I841); Glasgow Arch. Soc. (1856); Kent Arch. Soc. (1857); Lane and Cheshire Antiq. Soc. (1883). Leeds Thoresby Soc. (1889); Manchester, Chetham Soc. (1843); Newcastle-on-Tyne Soc. of Antiq. (1813); Norwich, Norfolk and Norwich Arch. Soc. (1846); Oxford, Architect. and Hist. Soc. (1839), and Hist. Soc. (1884); Purbeck Soc.; Reading, Berkshire Arch. and Architectural Soc. (1871); Surrey Arch. Soc.; Sussex Arch. Soc. (1846); Welshpool, Powys Land Club (1867); and Yorkshire Arch. Soc. (1863).

Canada: Halifax, Nova Scotia Hist. Soc. (1878), Coll. Montreal, Soc. Hist., Mém. (1859, &c.); Numism. and Antiq. Soc. (1872), Journ. (1872, &c.). Quebec, Lit. and Hist. Soc. (1824), Trans. (1837, &c.). Toronto, Ontario Hist. Soc. (1888, 1898), Rep.; Lit. and Hist. Soc. China: Hong-Kong, Roy. Asiatic Soc. Shanghai, Roy. Asiatic Soc., Journ. (1858, &c.). India: Bombay, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (Branch) (1804), Journal (1844, &c.). Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journ. (1832, &c.) and Proc. (1865, &c.); Indian Research Soc. (1907), Trans. Colombo, Roy. Asiatic Soc., Journ. (1844, &c.). Madras, Lit. Soc. (1818), Journal (1827, &c.). Singapore, Roy.

Asiatic Soc.
United States: The central antiquarian body in the United

States is established at Washington—the Archaeological Institute of Amer. (1879), which publishes Amer. Journ. Arch. (1897, &c.), and has affiliated with it 28 societies, including the Boston Society (1879), Cincinnati Soc. (1905), Iowa Soc. (1902), Wisconsin Soc. (1889), New York Soc. (1884), San Francisco (1906), North West Soc. (Seattle) (1906). Albany, Institute and Hist. and Art Soc., Trans. (1792-1819, 1830-1893), Proc. (1865-1882). Baltimore, Maryland Hist. Soc. (1844). Boston, Mass. Hist. Soc. (1791), Collections (1792, &c.) and Proc. (1859, &c.); New Engl. Hist.-Gen. Soc. (1845), Genealog. Register (1847); Amer. Oriental Soc. (1843), Journ. (1849, &c.); Amer. Library Assoc. (1876), Liby. Journal; Soc. Bibl. Lit. and Exegesis (1880), Journal (1882, &c.); Bostonian Soc. (1881), Proc. (1882, &c.). Brookline Hist. Soc. (1891). Buffalo, Hist. Soc. (1862). Cambridge, Hist. Soc. (1905), Proc. (1906, &c.); Dante Soc. (1881). Chicago, Hist. Soc. (1856). Cincinnati, Hist. and Phil. Soc. of Ohio (1831), Publns. (1906). Concord, Hist. Soc. Coll. (1824, &c.). Frankfort, Kentucky State Hist. Soc. (1836), Reg. Hartford, Amer. Philolog. Soc. (1869); Hist. Soc. (1825), Coll. (1860, &c.). Lincoln, Nebraska State Hist. Soc. (1867), Trans. (1885-1893), Proc. (1894, &c.). Madison, Hist. Soc., Coll. (1849, &c.). Minneapolis, Hist. Soc, Coll. (1869, &c.). Montpelier, Hist. Soc. of Vermont, Coll. (1869, &c.). New Haven, Amer. Orient. Soc. (1842), Journal (1849, &c.). New Orleans, Louisiana Hist. Soc. (1867), Publns. (1895, &c.). New York, Hist. Soc. (1804), Publns. (1868, &c.); Geneal. and Biogr. Soc. (1869), Record (1870); Bibliogr. Soc. (1904), Proc. (1906, &c.), Bull. (1907, &c.); Amer. Numis. Soc., Proc. (1882). Philadelphia, Hist. Soc. (1824), Mem. (1826, &c.); Numism. and Arch. Soc. (1858), Proc. (1867, &c.); Shakspere Soc. (1852). Portland, Maine Hist. Soc., Coll. (1831, &c.). Providence, Hist. Soc. (1822), Coll. (1827, &c.). Richmond, Virg. Hist. and Phil. (1831), Publ. (1874, &c.). St Louis, Missouri Hist. Soc. (1866), St Paul, Minnesota Hist. Soc. (1849), Coll. Savannah, Georgia Hist. Soc. (1839), Proc. Topeka, Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. (1881, &c.). Washington, Arch. Soc. (1902); Columbia Hist. Soc. (1894), Rec.; Amer. Hist. Assn. (1884), Amer. Hist. Rev. (1895, &c.). Worcester, Amer. Antiq. Soc. (1812), Proc. and Arch.

Amer. (1820, &c.).
France: The Congrès Archéologique de la France first met in

1834. Algiers, Soc. Hist. (1856), Revue (1856, &c.). Amiens, Soc. des Antiq. (1836), Mém. (1838, &c.) and Bull. Angoulême, Soc. Arch. et Hist. (1844), Bull. Bordeaux, Soc. Archéol. (1873); Soc. des Arch. Hist. (1858), Archives Hist. (1858, &c.). Bourges, Soc. Hist. et Litt. (1849), Bull. et Mém. (1852, &c.). Caen, Soc. des Antiq. de Normandie (1823), Mém. (1824, &c.) and Bull. (1860, &c.); Soc. Fran. d'Arch. (1834), Comptes rend. (1834, &c.) and Bull. Mens. (1835, &c.). Chalon-sur-Saône, Soc. d'Hist. et d'Arch. (1844), Mém. (1844, &c.). Chambery, Soc. Savoisienne d'Hist. et d'Arch. (1855), Mém. (1856, &c.). Constantine, Soc. Arch. (1852), Recueil. Dijon, Comm. des Antiquités (1831), Mém. (1882, &c.). Lille, Comm. hist. du Nord (1839), Bull. (1843. &c.). Limoges, Soc. Hist. et Arch. (1845), Bull.; Soc. des Archives hist. (1886), Archives (1887, &c.). Lyons, Soc. Hist., Litt. et Arch. (1807), Mém. (1860, &c.). Montpellier, Soc. Arch. (1833), Mém. (1835, &c.). Nancy, Soc. d'Arch. de Lorraine (1845), Mém. (1850, &c.) and Journ. (1852, &c.). Nantes, Soc. Arch. (1845), Bull. (1859, &c.). Orleans, Soc. Arch. et Hist. (1848), Mém. (1851, &c.) and Bull. Paris, Soc. Nat. des Antiq. de Fr. (1813) (based on the Académie Celtique, 1804), Mém. (1805, &c.) and Bull. (1817, &c.); Soc. de l'Hist. de France (1833), Annuaire (1837) and nearly 400 vols, besides; Soc. de l'École Nat. des Charles (1839), Documents (1873, &c.); Soc. Asiatique (1822), Journal Asiat. (1822, &c.), &c.; Soc. d'Arch. et de Numism. (1865); Soc. de l'Hist. du Prot. Fran. (1866); Soc. de Linguistique; Soc. Bibliogr. (1868), Polybiblion.; Soc. Philol. (1867), Actes (1869, &c.); Soc. des Études Hist. (1833), Revue (1834, &c.); Soc. d'Hist. Moderne (1901), Bull.; Soc. d'Hist. Contemp. (1890); Soc. de l'Hist. de la Révolution Fran. (1888); Soc. d'Hist. Diplomatique (1886); Soc. des Bibliophiles Fran. (1820); Soc. des Anciens Textes Fran. (1875), Bull. Poitiers, Soc. des Antiq. (1834), Mém. Rouen, Soc. de l'Hist. de Norm. (1869), Bull. (1870, &c.) and 75 vols, besides; Comm. des Antiquites (1818), Bull. (1867, &c.). Saint-Omer, Soc. des Antiq. (1831), Mém. (1833, &c.), Toulouse, Soc. Arch. (1831), Mém. (1831-1868), Bull. (1869, &c.); Acad. des Jeux floraux (1323, reorganized 1773), Rec. (1696, &c.). Tours, Soc. Arch. (1840), Mém. (1842, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Gesam. Ver. d. D. Gesch. u. Alt. Vereine (1852). Agram, Ges. f. Süd-Slav. Alterth. Aix-la-Chapelle, Geschichtsver. (1879), Ztschr. (1879, &c.). Altenburg, Gesch. u. Alterthums Ges. (1838), Mittheil. (1841, &c.). Augsburg, Hist. Ver. (1820, reorganized in 1834), Jahresber. (1835, &c.). Baden, Alterthums-Ver. (1844), Schriften. Bamberg, Hist. Ver. (1830), Ber. (1834, &c.). Berlin, Ver. f. Gesch. d. Mark Brandenb. (1836), Forschungen (1841, &c.); Ver. f. d. Gesch. Berlins (1865), Schriften; Hist. Ges. (1871), Mittheil. (1873, &c.); Archäolog. Ges. (1842), Sitzungsber., Archäol. Zeitung; Numism. Ges. (1843), Jahresber. (1845, &c.), Herold (1869); Phil. Ges. (1843), Der Gedanke (1861, &c.); Ges. f. D. Philologie (1877), Jahresber. (1879, &c.); D. Bibliogr. Ges. (1902), Ztschr. (1903, &c.); Ver. D. Bibliothekare (1900), Jahrbuch (1902); D. Orient-Ges. (1898), Mitteil. Bonn, Ver. f. Alterth. (1841), Jahresber.; Soc. Philologa (1854). Brandenburg, Hist. Ver. (1868), Jahresber. (1870, &c.). Braunsberg, Hist. Ver. (1856). Breslau, Ver. f. Gesch. u. Alt. Schl. (1846), Ztschr. (1856, &c.), Scriptores rerum Silesicarum (1847, &c.); Breslauer Dichterschule (1860). Budapest, Hungarian Hist. Soc. (1867), Századok. Cassel, Ver. f. Hess. Gesch. (1834), Ztschr. (1837, &c.). Cologne, Hist. Ver. (1854), Annalen (1855, &c.); Ges. für rheinische Geschichtskunde (1881). Cracow, Hist. Soc. Danzig, Westpreuss. Geschichtsver. (1879), Ztschr., Mitteil., Akten. Darmstadt, Hist. Ver. (1834), Archiv (1835, &c.). Dresden, K. Sächs. Alt. Ver. (1825), Jahresber. (1835, &c.) and Mittheil. (1835, &c.). Frankfort, Ges. f. Deutschlands ält. Geschichtskunde (1819; since 1875 under guidance of Central-Dir. d. Mon. Germ.), Mon. Germ. (1826, &c.); Ges. f. Gesch. u. Kunst (1837), Mittheil. (1858, &c.); Freies D. Hochstift in Goethe's Vaterhaus (1859); Ver. für Gesch. u. Alt. (1857), Archiv. Halle, Thür.-Sächs. Ver. (1819), Mittheil. (1822, &c.); D. Morgenl. Ges. (1844), Ztschr. (1847, &c.) and Abhandl. (1859, &c.). Hanover, Hist. Ver. (1835), Ztschr. Kiel, Ges. f. Gesch. Schl.-Holst. (1833, reorganized in 1873), Archiv (1833, &c.) and Ztschr. (1870, &c.). Königsberg, Altertumsges. Prussia (1844), Sitzungsber. Leipzig, D. Ges. z. Erforschung vaterl. Spr. u. Alterth. (1697, reorganized in 1824), Jahresber. (1825, &c.) and Mittheil. (1845, &c.); Fürstlich Jablonowski's Ges. (1768), Acta (1772, &c.); Börsenver. d. D. Buchhändler (1825), Börsenblatt (1834, &c.); Hist. Theolog. Ges. (1814) Lübeck, Hansischer Ges. Ver. (1870). Munich, Hist. Ver. (1837), Archiv (1839, &c.); Alterthums- Ver. (1864). Nuremberg, Pegnesischer Blumenorden (1644), had united with it in 1874 the Lit. Ver. (1839), Prague, Ver. f. Gesch. Ratisbon, Hist. Ver. (1830), Verhandl. (1832, &c.). Rostock, Ver. für. Alt. (1883), Beiträge (1890, &c.). Schwerin, Ver. f. Meckl. Gesch. u. Alterthumsk. (1835), Jahrbuch (1835, &c.) and other publications. Strassburg, Soc. pour la conservation des Monuments Historiques d'Alsace (1855), Bull'. (1855, also since 1889 with German title Mitteilungen). Stuttgart, Lit. Ver. (1839), Bibliothek (1843, &c.); Württemb. Alterth. Ver. (1843). Jahreshefte (1844) and many records, handbooks, &c. Tübingen, Lit. Ver. (1839), Bibliothek (1842, &c.). Vienna, K. k. Orient. Akad.; K. k. Heraldische Ges. “Adler” (1870), Jahrbücher (1874, &c.); Ver. für Österr. Volkskunde

(1894), Ztschr. Weimar, D. Shakespeare Ges. (1864, Jahrbuch
(1865, &c.); Goethe Ges. (1885), Schriften (1885, &c.); Ges. der

Bibliophilen (1899). Wiesbaden, Ver. f. Nass. Alterth. (1821), Annalen (1830, &c.). Würzburg, Hist. Ver. (1831), Archiv (1833). Switzerland: Basle, Hist. u. Antiq. Ges. (1836). Berne, Allgemeine Geschichtforschende Ges. (1840). Freiberg, Soc. d'Hist. Geneva, Soc. d'Hist. et d'Arch. (1838). Lausanne, Soc. d'Hist.; Soc. Vaudoise d'Hist. et d'Arch. (1902), Revue. St Gall, Hist. Ver. (1859), Mitteil. (1862, &c.). Zürich, Soc. d'Hist.; Antiq. Ges., Denkmäler. Italy: Bologna, Reg. Deputazione di Storia Patria. Catania, Soc. di Storia Patria (1903). Ferrara, Deput. Ferrarese di Storia Patria (1884). Florence, Societa Colombaria (1823); Soc. Dantesca Italiana (1888); R. Deputazione Tosc. di Storia Patria (1862). Genoa, Soc. di Storia Patria (1857). Milan, Soc. Numis. Ital.; Soc. Storica Lombarda. Naples, Soc. Nap. di Storia Patria (1875). Palermo, Soc. Sic. di Storia Patria (1873), Doc. Parma, R. Deputazione di Storia Patria. Rome, Accad. Rom. di Arch.; Soc. Rom. di Storia Patria (1877), Archivio (1877, &c.); Ist. di Corr. Arch.; Brit. and Amer. Arch. Soc.; Soc. Filol. Rom. (1901); Istituto Stor. Ital. (1883), Fonti (1887, &c.); K. Deutsch. Archäolog. Inst., Arch. Ztng. (1843-1885) and Jahrb. Turin, Real Deputaz. di Stor. Patr. (1833). Venice, R. Dep. Ven. di Storia Patria. Verona, Soc. Lett. (1808). Belgium: Antwerp, Acad. d'Archeol. (1842), Bull. (1865, &c.). Bruges, Soc. pour l'Hist. et les Antiq. de la Flandre (1839), Publ. Brussels, Soc. de l'Hist. de Belgique (1858), Publ.; Soc. Roy. de Numism. (1841), Revue; Soc. des Bibliophiles (1865); Soc. d'Archeol. (1887), Annuaire, Annales; Inst. Int. de Bibliogr. (1895), Repertoire. Ghent, Soc. Roy. des Beaux-Arts et de la Litt. (1808), Annales (1844, &c.); Willems Fond (1851); Maatschappij de Vlaamsche Bibliophilen (1839); Soc. d'Hist. et d'Archéol. (founded 1893 as Cercle Hist. et Archéol.), Bull. Liége, Inst. Archéol. (1850), Bull. (1852, &c.). Louvain, Soc. Litt. (1839), Mém. and Publ. Mons, Cercle Archéol. (1856), Annales (1857, &c.). Namur, Soc. Archéol. et Musée de Namur (1845), Annales. Tournai, Soc. Hist. et Litt. (1846), Bull. (1849, &c.). Verviers, Soc. Arch. Ypres, Soc. Hist. (1861). Holland: Leiden, Acad. Lugduno-Batava; Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde (1766) Tijdschrift. Luxembourg, Inst. Archéol. (1846, reorganized in 1862), Annales (1849, &c.). Utrecht, Hist. Genootschap (1845). Denmark: Copenhagen, Island. Litt. Selskab; K. Danske Selskab (1745), Magazin; K. Nordisk Oldskrift Selskab, Aarböger (1866, &c.), Fortidsminder (1890, &c.). Reykjavik (Iceland), Fornleifarfelag; Hid islenzka Bókmentafélag (1816), Skirnir. Norway: Christiania, Norske Hist. Forening (1869); Norske Oldskrift Selskab; Foreningen til Norske Fortidsminde maerkers Bevaring (1844). Sweden: Stockholm, K. Witterhets Hist. och Antiq. Akad.; Svenska Akad.; Sv. Fornskriftsällskapet (1843) Proc.; K. Samfundet för utgifvande af handskrifter rörande Skandinaviens hist. (1815-1817), Handl. (1816, &c.). Spain: Barcelona, R. Acad, de Buenas Letras. Madrid, R. Acad. de Cienc. Mor. y Pol.; R. Acad. Esp. Arq.; R. Acad. de la Hist. (1738). Russia: Helsingfors, Finska Litt. Sällskapet (1831), Ztschr. (1841); Finnish Archaeol. Soc. (1870), Tidskrift (1874, &c.); Hist. Soc. (1875), Arkisto (1876, &c.). Kazan, Soc. of Arch. Hist. and Ethnogr. (1877), Izvestija (1878). Mitau, Courland Soc. of Lit. and Art. Moscow, Imp. Russ. Soc. of Hist. and Antiq.; Archaeolog. Soc. (1864). Narva, Archaeolog. Soc. Odessa, Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1839), Zapiski (1844, &c.). Riga, Lett. Lit. Ges.; Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1834), Mitteil. (1873, &c.). St Petersburg, Russ. Hist. Soc. (1866), Sbornik (1867, &c.); Imp. Soc. for Study of Ancient Lit. (1877); Imp. Russ. Archeol. Soc. (1846); Russ. Bibliogr. Soc. (1899); Soc. for Orient. Studies, with numerous branches; Neo-Philol. Soc. (1885). Greece: Athens, Soc. Archéol.; Amer. School Class. Studies (1882); École Franç. d'Athènes (1846); British School at Athens (1886); Ἀρχαιολογικὴ Ἑταιρεία (Arch. Soc.) (1837), Ἐφημερίς. Turkey: Constantinople, Soc. for Adv. of Turkish Lit.; Greek Lit. Soc.; Hellenic Philolog. Soc. Bulgaria: Sofia, Bulg. Lit. Soc. (1869), now the Bulgarian Acad. (1910), Period. (1870, &c.). South America: Rio de Janeiro, Inst. hist. e geogr. (1838). Japan:

Yokohama, Asiatic Soc. of Japan, Trans. (1874, &c.).
XVIII. Geography
The Congrès International pour les Progrès des Sciences

Géographiques first met in 1871. The Royal Geographical Society of London, founded in 1830, had joined to it in the following year the African Association (1788), the successor of the Saturday Club; the Palestine Association (1805) became merged with it in 1834. It publishes Journal (1832, &c.) and Proceedings (1857, &c.). The Hakluyt Society (1846) has printed more than 136 vols. of rare voyages and travels. The Alpine Club (1858), whose publications are Peaks, Passes and Glaciers (1859-1862) and Journal (1863, &c.), meets in London. The Royal Scottish Geographical Society (1884) has its centre at Edinburgh, and issues the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Liverpool, Tyneside and Manchester have also Geographical Societies. Australia: Adelaide, R. Geogr. Soc. of Australasia (1885), Proc. Brisbane, R. Geogr. Soc. of Australasia (1885). Melbourne, Roy. Geogr. Soc. of Australasia (1883). Sydney, Geogr. Inst. Canada: Quebec, Geogr. Soc. India: Bombay, Geogr. Soc., Trans. (1836, &c.). Egypt: Cairo, Soc. Khédiviale de Géogr. (1875), Bull.

(1876, &c.).
United States: Baltimore, Geogr. Soc. (1902). Chicago, Geogr.

Soc. (1894). Hamilton, Assoc of Amer. Geogr. (1904). New York, Amer. Geogr. Soc. (1852), Bull. (1852-1857), Journ. later Bull. (1859, &c.), and Proc. (1862-1865). Philadelphia, Geogr. Soc. (1891). San Francisco, Geogr. Soc. (1891), Bull. Washington, Nat. Geogr. Soc. (1852), Magazine (1888). France: Algiers, Soc. Géogr. (1896), Bull. Bordeaux, Soc. de Géogr. Commerciale (1874), Bull. Dijon, Soc. Bourg. de Géogr. et d'Hist. (1881), Mém. (1884, &c.). Lyons, Soc. de Géogr. (1873), Bull. Marseilles, Soc.de Géogr. (1876), Bull. Montpellier, Soc. Languedocienne de Géogr. (1878), Bull. Nancy, Soc. de Géogr. (1878), Bull. Paris, Soc. de Géogr. (1821; 1827), Bull. Toulouse, Soc. de Géogr. (1882), Bull. Germany and Austria-Hungary: D. Alpen-Ver. (1869), Ztschr. u. Jahrb. (1869, &c.). Berlin, Ges. f. Erdkunde (1828), Ztschr. (1853, &c.), and Verhandl. (1873, &c.); Ges. zur Erforschung Aquat. Afrikas (1873), Corr.-Blatt; Afrik. Ges. (1878), Mittheil.; D. Geographentag (1881), Verhandl. Bremen, Geograph. Ges. (1876), Geogr. Blätter. Budapest, Hung.-Geogr. Soc. (1872). Carlsruhe, Badische Geogr. Ges. (1880), Verhandl. Cassel, Ver. f. Erdk. (1882). Darmstadt, Ver. f. Erdk. (1845), Notizblatt (1854, &c.). Dresden, Ver. f. Erdk. (1863), Jahresber. (1865-1901), Mitteil. (1905, &c.). Frankfort, Ver. f. Geogr. u. Statist. (1836), Jahresber. Giessen, Ges. für Erd. u. Völkerkunde (1896). Halle, Ver. f. Erdk. (1873). Hamburg, Geogr. Ges. (1873), Jahresber. Hanover, Geogr. Ges. (1878), Jahresber. Jena, Geogr. Ges. (1880), Mittheil. Leipzig, Ver. f. Erdk. (1861), Jahresber. Lübeck, Geogr. Ges. (1882). Munich, Geogr. Ges. (1869), Jahresber. Vienna, K. k. Geogr. Ges., Mitt. (1857, &c.); Ver. der Geogr. Weimar, Geogr. Inst. Switzerland: Berne, Inst. Geogr.; Geogr. Ges. (1873), Jahresber. (1879, &c.); Schweiz. Alpen-Club. Geneva, Soc. de Géogr., Mém. (1860, &c.). Zürich, Karten-Ver. Italy: Rome, Soc. Geogr. Ital., Bull. (1868, &c.). Turin, Circolo Geogr. Ital. (1868). Belgium: Antwerp, Soc. Belge de Géogr. (1870), Bull.; Soc. Roy. de Géogr. (1876), Bull. Brussels, Soc. Belge de Géogr. (1876). Holland: Amsterdam, K. Nederl. Aardrijkskundig Genoot. (1873), Tijdschrift (1874, &c.); Landkundige Genootschap. Denmark: Copenhagen, Geogr. Selskab. Norway: Christiania, Det norske geogr. Selskab (1889). Spain and Portugal: Lisbon, Soc. de Geogr., Bol. (1875, &c.). Madrid, Soc. Geogr., Bol. (1876, &c.). Russia: Helsingfors, Geogr. Soc. (1888), Tidskrift; Sällskapet för Finlands geografi (1888). Irkutsk, Geogr. Soc., Bull. (1871, &c.). St Petersburg, Imp. Russ. Geogr. Soc., Mém. (1845, &c.), and Bull. (1865, &c.). Tiflis, Geogr. Soc., Mém. (1852, &c.). Rumania: Bucharest, Societatea Geografica Româna (1875), Bull. Egypt: Cairo, Soc. Khédiviale de Géogr., Bull. (1876, &c.). Japan: Tokyo, Geogr. Soc. Central and South America: Buenos Aires, Inst. Geogr. Argent. La Paz, Soc. Geogr. (1889), Bol. Lima, Soc. Geogr. (1888), Bol. Mexico, Soc. de

Geogr. y Estad., Bol. (1833, &c.). Rio de Janeiro, Soc. de Geogr.
Bibliography.—The Catal. of Printed Books in the British

Museum (1841), folio, s.v. “Academies,” contains a list of all the publications of societies at that time in the museum. This has been rearranged and greatly enlarged as Academies (1885-1886), 5 parts folio, with Suppl. (1900-1903). Smithsonian Instn. International Exchange List (1908); B. Quaritch, List of Learned Societies (Odd Vols.) (1886). S. H. Scudder, Cat. of Scientific Serials (1633-1876); Camb. (U.S.) (1879), 8vo. For general indexes see J. D. Reuss, Repertorium (1801-1821), 16 vols., Roy. Soc. Cat. of Sc. Papers (1867-1902); Societatum Litterae, Verzeichniss (1887-1900, 14 vols.). For list of indexes to transactions, &c., see A. Stein, Manuel de Bibliographie générale (1897), p. 642, &c. Minerva (Strassb. Trübner), from 1891 on, is most useful for all the chief existing societies in the world. British societies are now well represented in the Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Brit. and Ireland (1884, &c.). See also Hume's Learned Societies and Printing Clubs of the U.K. (1853, 8vo); E. Mailly, Inst. Sc. de la Grande-Bret. (1861-1867, 6 pts.); H. G. Bohn, App. to Bibliographer's Manual (1864), 8vo; Engl. Catal. of Books (1864-1909); C. S. Terry, Cat. of Publications of Scottish Historical Societies and Clubs, 1909; “Sc. Societies and Field Clubs,” in Nature, v., viii. For American Societies see R. R. Bowker, Publns. of Societies (New York, 1899); Handbk. of Learned Societies, Carnegie Inst. of Washington (1908); A. P. C. Griffin, Bibl. of Amer. Historical Societies (1905); A. Growoll, Am. Book Clubs (New York, 1897). For France, see U. Robert, Bibl. des. Soc. sav. de la France, pt. i. (1878); F. Bouillier, L'Institut et les acad. de province (1879, 8vo); Lasteyrie, Lefèvre-Pontalis et A. Vidier, Bibliogr. des travaux hist. et arch. publ. par les soc. sav. de la France (1888-1904, 4 vols. 4to). J. Deniker, Bibliogr. des travaux scientifiques publ. par les soc. savantes de la France (1895, &c.); H. Delauny, Les Soc. savantes de la France (1902); E. Lefèvre-Pontalis, Bibl. des soc. savantes de la France (1887); Annuaire des Soc. savantes de la France et de l'étranger (1846); A. d'Hericourt, Annuaire (1863-1866); continued in Revue de soc. savantes. For Germany and Austria-Hungary, see H. A. Stöhr, Allg. Deutsches Vereinshandbuch (1873, &c., 8vo); J. Müller, Die wiss. Vereine u. Ges. Deutschlands im 19ten Jahrh. (1883-l888); J. Winckler, Die period. Presse Österreichs (1875, 8vo); and P. A. F. Walther for German historical societies (1845). See also “Les Congrès scientifiques,” by Comte de Marsy, in Compte rendu du Congrès Bibliogr. (1879). For Belgium, see Introd. à la Bibl. de la Belgique (1875). For Italy, see Statistica della stampa periodica, 1880-1895; Elenco bibl. delle accademie ec. corrisp. con. la R. Accad. dei Lincei Roma, 1908. For Russia, consult C. Woldemar, Gesch. d. russ. Gelehrten- und Schulanstalten (St Petersburg, 1865, 8vo), and Kawall, Die neuen russ. Naturforschergesellschaften (Riga,

1872-1874). (H. R. T.)