1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Springbuck
SPRINGBUCK, or Springbok (Antidorcas euchore), an aberrant South African gazelle inhabiting the country south of the Zambezi, but ranging north-westwards to Mossamedes. In the more settled parts of Cape Colony, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State it now only exists within the enclosures of the large farms, and can hardly be said to be any longer truly wild. Both sexes carry lyrate horns; the shoulder-height of an adult male is about 30 in., and an average pari of horns measures 14 in. along the curve; in the female the horns are more slender. The general colour above is reddish fawn, separated from the white of the under-parts by a dark band on the flanks. Along the middle of the hinder half of the back is a line of long erectile white hairs, forming the "fan," continued down over the rump; in repose this is concealed by the surrounding hair, but is conspicuously displayed when the animal takes the great leaps from which it derives its popular name. The periodical migrations of springbuck are well known, and though the treks are small compared with those of about 1850, they still include very large herds. In 1896 there was a great trek, and about then in the north of Cape Colony a herd was seen which was estimated at 500,000 head.