1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Thibaw
THIBAW, or Hsipaw, one of the Northern Shan States of Burma. It is called by the Shans, and officially, Hsipaw, and also frequently Ông Pawng (the name of an old capital). It includes four states — Thibaw, the main state, and the substates of Möng Lông, Möng Tung and Thonzè (or Hsumhsai). The whole state has an area of 5086 sq. m., and the population in 1901 was 104,700. The main state lies on the geological fault which runs east and west across the Shan States, from the Salween at Kunlông and beyond to nearly the rim of the Shan tableland at Gôkteik. It is therefore broken up into a mass of not very well-defined ridges and spurs, crossing and re-entering. The chief plain land is in the valley of the Nam Tu (Myit-ngè), near Thibaw town, and the valley or strath of the Pyawng Kawng, Nawng Ping neighbourhood. Elsewhere the valleys are insignificant. The hills on the Möng Tung border reach their highest elevations in the peaks Loi Pan (6848 ft.) and Loi Htan (6270 ft.). To the north-west of Thibaw town, on the Tawng Peng border, Loi Lam rises to 6486 ft. The valley of the Nam Tu marks the lowest point in the state at Thibaw town, about 1400 ft., and rises on the east in Möng Tung to a plain level of about 2500 ft., and on the west in Möng Lông to a confused mass of hills with an average height of 4500 ft., broken up by the Nam Yawn and Nam Kaw valleys, which are about 3000 ft. above mean sea-level.
in local stretches, and between Thonzè and Lawksawk (Yatsauk) it flows through a gorge between cliffs 3000 to 4000 ft. high. At the gorge of Hoküt (Ngôkteik) the Nam Htang and the Nam Pasè unite to form the Nam Küt, which passes into the ground at the natural bridge where the Mandalay-Kunlong railway crosses the gorge, and reappears to join the Nam Tu. The bed of the Nam Küt is about 1500 ft. below the general leyel of the country. Coal is found at various places in the state, but is not of very high quality. Salt-wells are worked by the inhabitants of Mawhkio (Bawgyo) about 7 m. from Thibaw town. The average maximumtemperature at the beginning of April is about 96°, and the minimum