1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Timber-Wolf
TIMBER-WOLF (Canis occidentalis), or grey wolf, an American species, or, perhaps, a geographical race of the European C. lupus (see Wolf). The length of good specimens is about 64 in., of which the tail forms nearly a quarter, and the range of colour is from black to white. Cattle ranchers and shepherds have established a war of extermination against this wolf and the coyote; several states offer bounties ranging from $2 to $10 on wolf-scalps. In Montana in 1901 during a month in the saddle an observer saw no wolves, which have become so scarce that the occupation of the professional wolf-hunter is almost gone. These animals are, however, far from being exterminated, the “bad lands” forming an absolutely secure refuge.