1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Tisio, Benvenuto
TISIO (or Tisi), BENVENUTO (1481-1559), commonly called Il Garofalo, Italian painter of the Ferrarese school, was born in 1481 at Garofolo, in the Ferrarese territory, and constantly used the gillyflower (garofalo) as a symbol with which to sign his pictures. He took to drawing in childhood, and was put to study under Domenico Panetti (or Laneto), and afterwards at Cremona under his maternal uncle Niccolo Soriani, a painter who died in 1499; he also frequented the school of Boccaccio Boccaccino. He stayed fifteen months with Giovanni Baldini in Rome, acquiring a solid style of draughtsmanship, and was two years with Lorenzo Costa at Mantua. He then entered the service of the marquis Francesco Gonzaga. Afterwards he went to Ferrara, and worked there four years. Attracted by Raphael's fame, and invited by a Ferrarese gentleman, Geronimo Sagrato, he again removed to Rome, and found the great painter very amicable; here he stayed two years, rendering some assistance in the Vatican frescoes. From Rome family affairs recalled him to Ferrara; there Duke Alphonso I. commissioned him to execute paintings, along with the Dossi, in the Villa di Belriguardo and in other palaces. Thus the style of Tisio partakes of the Lombard, the Roman and the Venetian modes. He painted extensively in Ferrara, both in oil and in fresco, two of his principal works being the “Massacre of the Innocents” (1519), in the church of S. Francesco, and the “Betrayal of Christ” (1524), accounted his masterpiece. For the former he made clay models for study and a lay figure, and executed everything from nature. He continued constantly at work until in 1550 blindness overtook him, painting on all feast-days in monasteries for the love of God. He had married at the age of forty-eight, and died at Ferrara on the 6th (or 16th) of September 1559, leaving two children.