1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Toulouse, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of

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TOULOUSE, LOUIS ALEXANDRE DE BOURBON, Count of (1678-1737), third son of Louis XIV. and Mme de Montespan was born on the 6th of June 1678. At the age of five he was created admiral of France. He distinguished himself during the War of the Spanish Succession, and inflicted a severe defeat on Admiral Rooke near Malaga in 1704. He kept aloof from the intrigues of his sister-in-law, the duchess of Maine, and died on the 1st of December 1737. His son, Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, due de Penthievre (1725-1793), succeeded his father in his posts, among others in that of grand admiral. He served under Marshal de Noailles, and fought brilliantly at Dettingen (1743) and Fontenoy (1745). He then lived in retreat at Rambouillet and Sceaux, protecting men of letters, and particularly the poet Florian, and dispensing charity. He lost his son, the prince of Lamballe, in 1768, and survived his daughter-in-law, Louise Marie Therese of Savoy-Carignan, the friend of Marie Antoinette, who was killed by the populace on the 3rd of September 1792. He died on the 4th of March 1793; his daughter and heiress, Louise Marie Adelaide, married Philippe (Egalité), duke of Orleans.