1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Trent (river)

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TRENT, the chief river in the midlands of England, the third in length in the country, exceeded only by the Thames and Severn. It rises in the north of Staffordshire, and discharges through the Humber into the North Sea, having a course of about I7O m., and a drainage area of 4052 sq. m. The source is on Biddulph Moor, which rises to a height of 1100 ft. The course of the river is at first southerly, and it skirts the manufacturing district of the Potteries, passing Stoke-upon-Trent. Immediately below this town the valley widens, and the fall of the river, from a point 15 m. from the source to the mouth, is only 338 ft. Passing Stone, the course becomes south-easterly, and the united waters of the Sow and the Penk are received on the right. Near Rugeley the direction becomes easterly, and near Alrewas the Trent receives the Tame on the right, and turns to the north-east. Much of the valley above this point is well wooded and picturesque, though the flanking hills are gently sloping, and of no great elevation. The river now passes Burton-upon-Trent, in this part of its course forming the boundary between Staffordshire and Derbyshire. The fall from Burton to the mouth, a distance of 109 m., is 148 ft. The valley opens out as the stream, dividing into several channels at Burton and receiving on the left the Dove, enters Derbyshire. It then separates that county from Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, receives in quick succession the Derwent (left), Soar (right) and Erewash (left), enters Nottinghamshire, and passes Nottingham, 81¼ m. from the mouth. The next important town is Newark, which, however, the main channel of the river passes at a considerable distance to the west; the Devon joins here on the right, and the fall from this point to the mouth, a distance of 57½ m., is only 18 ft. The valley becomes fiat, though the river is rather deeply entrenched in some parts. Forming the boundary between Nottingham and Lincolnshire, the Trent passes Gainsborough (26½ m. from the mouth), receives the Idle on the left, and, entering Lincolnshire and skirting the Isle of Axholme, joins the Yorkshire Ouse near Faxfleet. The lower part of the valley resembles the Fens in character, and is drained by many artificial channels. The northward turn at Newark is of interest inasmuch as it is considered that the river from this point formerly flowed towards Lincoln, and, following a depression in the escarpment there, passed down the valley at present occupied by the Witham to the Wash. It is suggested that the waters were diverted to the Humber by a stream within that system cutting back southward and tapping the Trent in the vicinity of Newark; and in high flood the Trent has been known to send water across the low parting to the Witham (see Avebury, Scenery of England, ch. xi.). The highest tides are felt about 40 m. up river, and the phenomenon of an “eagre” (bore or tidal wave) is seen rising on spring tides to a height of 4 or 5 ft., 15 m. above the mouth of the river.

The Trent is navigable for a distance of 94¾ m. from its junction

with the Ouse, to a point a short distance above the junction of the Derwent, the Trent Navigation Company having a general control of the navigation down to Gainsborough, the line of which passes through Nottingham by canals. On the river itself there are eight locks. Below Gainsborough the navigation is open, and vessels drawing 9 ft. can reach this point on spring tides. From the Derwent mouth the Trent and Mersey Canal follows the Trent valley upward, and gives connexion with the entire inland navigation system of the midlands and west of England. Short canals give access to Derby and the Erewash valley; the Leicester Navigation, following the Scar, connects with the Grand junction canal; and the Grantham Canal carriesa little traffic between that town and Nottingham. The Fossdyke, distinguished as the oldest navigable waterway still in use in England, as it was originally of Roman construction, connects the Trent with Lincoln and the Witham, and lower down the Sheffield and South Yorkshire canal joins the river from the west

at Keadby. There is also a canal, little used, to Chesterfield.


TRENTE ET QUARANTE (called also Rouge et Noir), a game of French origin played with cards and a special table. It is one of the two games played in the gambling rooms at Monte Carlo, roulette being the other.

Trente et Quarante - half table.jpg
Diagram of Half of Trente et
Quarante Table
N, Noir. G, Grand tableau.
R, Rouge. J, Inverse.

The diagram illustrates one half of the table, the other half precisely corresponding to it. Two croupiers sit on each side, one of them being the dealer; behind the two on the side opposite to the dealer a supervisor of the game has his seat. Six packs of fifty-two cards each are used; these are well shuffled, and the croupier asks any of the players to cut, handing him a blank card with which to divide the mixed packs. There are only four chances at trente et quarante: rouge or noir, known as the grand tableau; couleur or inverse, known as the petit tableau. At Monte Carlo the stakes are placed on the divisions indicated on the table, the maximum being 12,000 francs and the minimum 20 francs which must be staked in gold. The dealer, who has placed all the cards before him, separates a few with the blank card, takes them in his left hand and invites the players to stake with the formula, “Messieurs, faites votre jeu!” After a pause he exclaims “Le jeu est fait, rien ne va plus!” after which no stake can be made. He then deals the cards in a row until the aggregate number of pips is something more than thirty, upon which he deals a second row, and that which comes nearest to thirty wins, the top row being always distinguished as noir, and the lower as rouge. In announcing the result the word trente is always omitted, the dealer merely announcing un, trois, quatre, as the case may be, though when forty is turned up it is described as quarante. The words noir and inverse are also never used, the announcement being rouge gagne or rouge perd, couleur gagne or couleur perd. Gain or loss over couleur and inverse depends upon the colour of the first card dealt. If this should be also the colour of the winning row, the player wins. Assuming, for example, that the first card dealt is red, and that the lower row of the cards dealt is nearest to thirty, the dealer will announce “Rouge gagne et le couleur.” If the first card dealt is red, but the black or top row of cards is nearest to thirty, the dealer announces “Rouge perd et le couleur.” It frequently happens that both rows of cards when added together give the same number. Should they both, for instance, add up to thirty-three, the dealer will announce “Trois après,” and the deal goes for nothing except in the event of their adding up to thirty-one. Un après (i.e. thirty-one) is known as a refait; the stakes are put in prison to be left for the decision of the next deal, or if the player prefers it he can withdraw half his stake, leaving the other half for the bank. Assurance against a refait can be made by paying 1% on the value of the stake with a minimum of five francs. When thus insured against a refait the player is at liberty to withdraw his whole stake. It has been calculated that on an average a refait occurs once in thirty-eight coups. After each deal the cards are pushed into a metal bowl let into the table in front of the dealer. When he has not enough left to complete the two rows, he remarks “Les cartes passent”; they are taken from the bowl, reshuffled, and another deal begins.

TRENTON, a city and the county-seat of Grundy county, Missouri, U.S.A., on the E. fork of the Grand River, in the north central part of the state, about 100 m. N.E. of Leavenworth. Pop. (1890), 5039; (1900), 5396, including 192 foreign-born and 200 negroes; (1910), 5656. It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (which has repair shops here) and the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City railways. It has a picturesque situation, and is laid out over a high uneven bluff. The city is a trading centre for a prosperous farming region, and coal is mined in the vicinity. Trenton was platted in 1841, became the county-seat in the same year, and was incorporated as a town in 1857. In 1893 it received a city charter under a general state law. In 1900-1903 it was the seat of Ruskin College, an institution founded by Walter Vrooman (b. 1869), a native of Missouri, and the organizer of the Ruskin Hall Workingmen's College, Oxford, England. The college was removed to Glen Ellyn, Illinois, in 1903 and after 1906 to Ruskin, Florida.

TRENTON, the capital of New Jersey, U.S.A., and the county seat of Mercer county, on the eastern bank of the Delaware river, about 33 m. N.E. of Philadelphia, and about 59 m. S.W. of New York. Pop. (1890), 57,458; (1900), 73,307, of whom 16,793 were foreign-born (including 4114 Germans, 3621 English, 3292 Irish, and 1494 Hungarians), and 32,879 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 8873 of German parentage, 8324 of Irish parentage, 5513 of English parentage, and 2243 of Hungarian parentage; (1910 census), 96,815. Area, 9 sq. m. Trenton is served by the Pennsylvania (main line and Belvidere division) and the Philadelphia & Reading railway systems, by inter-urban electric railways, and by small freight and passenger steamers on the Delaware river; the Delaware & Raritan Canal connects with