1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Tullus Hostilius

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TULLUS HOSTILIUS, third legendary king of Rome (672-640 B.C.). His successful wars with Alba, Fidenae and Veii shadow forth the earlier conquests of Latian territory and the first extension of the Roman domain beyond the walls of Rome. It was during his reign that the combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, the representatives of Rome and Alba, took place. He is said to have been struck dead by lightning as the punishment of his pride.

Tullus Hostilius is simply the duplicate of Romulus. Both aie brought up among shepherds, carry on war against Fidenae and Veii, double the number of citizens, organize the army, and disappear from earth in a storm. As Romulus and Numa represent the Ramnes and Tities, so, in order to complete the list of the four traditional elements of the nation, Tullus was made the representative of the Luceres, and Ancus the founder of the Plebs. The distinctive event of this reign is the destruction of Alba, which may be regarded as an historical fact. But when and by whom it was destroyed is uncertain — probably at a later date, by the Latins, and not by the Romans, who would have regarded as impious the destruction of their traditional mother-country.

See Livy i. 22-31; Dion. Halic. iii. 1-35; Cicero, de Republica, ii. 17. For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk. xii. ; Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, Credibility of early Roman History, ch. n; W. Ihne, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. ; E. Pais, Storia di Roma, vol, i. (1898) ; O. Gilbert, Geschichte und Topographie der Stadt Rom im Altertum, ii. (1885); G. F. Schomann, " De Tullo Hostilio rege romano " in his Opuscula, i. 18-49; also Rome: Ancient History.