1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Valdivia
VALDIVIA, a southern province of Chile, bounded N. by Cautin, E. by Argentina, S. by Llanquihue and W. by the Pacific. Area, 8649 sq. m. Pop. (1895) 60,687; (1902, estimated) 76,000. The province is roughly mountainous in the E., is heavily forested and is traversed by numerous rivers. There is a chain of lakes across its eastern side near the Andes, the largest of which are Villarica, Rinihue and Ranco. The rivers are the Tolten on the northern boundary, the Valdivia, or Calle-Calle, with its large tributaries in the central part of the province, and the Bueno on the southern frontier. The Valdivia (about 100 m. long) has its sources in the Andes and flows W. to the Pacific. Its largest tributary on the N. is the Rio Cruces. The Valdivia is the outlet for Lake Rinihue and is navigable for a long distance. Valdivia is one of the most recently settled provinces and has a large immigrant element, chiefly German. Its most important industry is that of clearing away the heavy forests and marketing the timber. Stock-raising is an important industry, and wheat is grown on the cleared lands. Lumber, cattle, leather, flour and beer are exported. The capital is Valdivia, a flourishing city on the Valdivia river, 12 m. above its port, Corral, near the mouth of the river. Pop. (1895) 8062; (1902, estimated) 9704. It is a. roughly built pioneer town, in which wood is the principal building material. The mean annual temperature is 59.9° and its annual rainfall is 115 in. A government railway runs to Osorno on the S., and in 1909 was being connected with the central line running S. through Bio-Bio and Cautin. The port of Corral, at the mouth of the Valdivia river, in lat. 39° 49′ S., long. 73° 19′ W., is situated on the S. side of a broad, lagoon-like sheet of water, forming one of the best natural harbours on the coast. It is a port of call for several lines of steamers, including those of the Pacific Mail running between Liverpool and Valparaiso.