1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vienna

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VIENNA (Ger. Wien; Lat. Vindobona), the capital of the Austrian empire, the largest city in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, and the fourth city in Europe as regards population. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, at the base of the Wiener Wald, and at the beginning of the great plain which separates the Alps from the Carpathians. This plain is continued on the opposite bank of the Danube by the valley of the March, which constitutes the easiest access to the north. Thus Vienna forms a junction of natural ways from south to north, and from west to east. It also lies on the frontier which separates from one another three races, the German, the Slavonic and the Hungarian.

Curiously enough, Vienna has for a long time turned its back, so to speak, on the magnificent waterway of the Danube, the city being built about 1½ m. away from the main stream. Only an arm of the river, the Danube Canal, so called because it was regulated and widened in 1598, passes through the city, dividing it into two unequal parts. It is true that the river forms at this point several arms, and the adjoining districts were subjected to periodical inundations, while navigation was by no means easy here. But in 1870 works for the regulation of the river were started with the object of making it quite safe for navigation, and of avoiding the dangers of inundation. By these magnificent works of regulation the new bed was brought nearer to the town, and the new river channel has an average width of 915 ft. and a depth of 10 ft. On its left bank stretches the so-called inundation region, 1525 ft. wide, while on the right bank quays have been constructed with numerous wharfs and warehouses. By these works of regulation over 2400 acres of ground were gained for building purposes. This new bed of the Danube was completed in 1876. In conjunction with this work the entire Danube Canal has been transformed into a harbour by the construction of a lock at its entrance, while increased accommodation for shipping has also been provided at the other end of the canal known as the winter harbour. Into the Danube Canal flows the small stream, called Wien, now arched over almost in its entirety. Vienna extends along the right bank of the Danube from the historic and legendary Kahlenberg to the point where the Danube Canal rejoins the main stream, being surrounded on the other side by a considerable stretch of land which is rather rural than suburban in character.

Vienna is officially divided into twenty-one districts or Bezirke. Until 1892 it contained only ten of the present districts; in that year nine outlying districts were incorporated with the town; in 1900 Brigittenau was created out of part of the old district of Leopoldstadt, and in 1905 the Floridsdorf district was made up by the incorporation of the following former suburbs: Aspern-an-der-Donau, Donaufeld, Floridsdorf, Gross Jedlersdorf, Hirschstetten, Jedlesee, Kagran, Leopoldau, Lobau-Insel and Stadlau. By the incorporation of the suburbs in 1892, the area of Vienna was more than trebled, namely, from 21⅓ sq. m. to 69 sq. m., while a new increase of about one-fifth of its total area was added by the incorporation of 1902. A feature of the new city is the unusually large proportion of woods and arable land within its bounds. These form nearly 60% of its total area, private gardens, parks and open spaces occupying a further 13%. While from the standpoint of population it takes the fourth place among European capitals, Vienna covers about three times as much ground as Berlin, which occupies the third place. But the bulk of its inhabitants being packed into a comparatively small portion of this area, the working classes suffer greatly from overcrowding, and all sections of the community from high rents.

The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis. These, however, were removed in 1858–60, and the place of the glacis has been taken by a magnificent boulevard, the Ring-Strasse, 2 m. in length, and about 150 ft. in average width. Another series of works, consisting of a rampart and fosse, were constructed in 1704 to surround the whole city at that time, i.e. the first ten districts of modern Vienna. This second girdle of fortifications was known as the Lines (Linien), and a second wide boulevard (Gürtel-Strasse) follows their course round the city. This second or outer girdle of fortifications formed the boundary between the city and the outlying suburbs, but was removed in 1892, when the incorporation of the suburbs took place.

The inner town, which lies almost exactly in the centre of the others, is still, unlike the older parts of most European towns, the most aristocratic quarter, containing the palaces of the emperor and of many of the nobility, the government offices, many of the embassies and legations, the opera house and the principal hotels. Leopoldstadt which together with Brigittenau are the only districts on the left bank of the Danube Canal, is the chief commercial quarter, and is inhabited to a great extent by Jews. Mariahilf, Neubau and Margarethen are the chief seats of manufacturing industry. Landstrasse may be described as the district of officialism; here too are the British and German embassies. Alsergrund, with the enormous general hospital, the military hospital and the municipal asylum for the insane, is the medical quarter.

Near the centre of the inner city, most of the streets in which are narrow and irregular, is the cathedral of St Stephen, the most important medieval building in Vienna, dating in its present form mainly from the 14th and 15th centuries, but incorporating a few fragments of the original 12th-century edifice. Among its most striking features are the fine and lofty tower (450 ft.), rebuilt in 1860–64; the extensive catacombs, in which the emperors were formerly interred; the sarcophagus (1513) of Frederick III.; the tombs of Prince Eugene of Savoy; thirty-eight marble altars; and the fine groined ceiling. A little to the south-west of the cathedral is the Hofburg, or imperial palace, a huge complex of buildings of various epochs and in various styles, enclosing several courtyards. The oldest part of the present edifice dates from the 13th century, and extensive additions have been made since 1887. In addition to private rooms and state apartments, the Hofburg contains a library of about 800,000 volumes, 7000 incunabula and 24,000 MSS., including the celebrated “Papyrus Rainer”, the imperial treasury, containing the family treasures of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, and other important collections.

In the old town are the two largest of the Hofe, extensive blocks of buildings belonging to the great abbeys of Austria, which are common throughout Vienna. These are the Schottenhof (once belonging to the “Scoti,” or Irish Benedictines) and the Molkerhof, adjoining the open space called the Freiung, each forming a little town of itself. As in most continental towns, the custom of living in flats is prevalent in Vienna, where few except the richer nobles occupy an entire house. Of late the so-called “Zinspalaste” (“tenement palaces”) have been built on a magnificent scale, often profusely adorned without and within with painting and sculpture. Other notable buildings within the line of the old fortifications are the Gothic Augustine church, built in the 14th century, and containing a fine monument of Canova; the Capuchin church, with the burial vault of the Habsburgs; the church of Maria Stiegen, an interesting Gothic building of the 14th century, restored in 1820; the handsome Greek church, by T. Hansen (1813–1891), finished in 1858; the Minorite church, a Gothic edifice of the 14th century, containing an admirable mosaic of Leonardo da Vinci's “Last Supper” by Raffaeli, executed in 1806–14 by order of Napoleon and placed here in 1846. Other churches worth mentioning are the Schottenkirche, built in the 13th century, reconstructed in the 17th and restored by H. von Ferstel (1828–1883), containing the tombs of the count of Starhemberg, the defender of Vienna against the Turks in 1683, and of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott (d. 1177); the church of St Peter, reconstructed by Fischer von Erlach in 1702–13, and the University church, erected by the Jesuits in 1625–31, both in the baroque style with rich frescoes; lastly, the small church of St Ruprecht, the oldest church in Vienna, first built in 740, and several times reconstructed; and the old Rathaus. At the corner of the Graben, one of the busiest thoroughfares, containing the most fashionable shops in Vienna, is the Stock im Eisen, the stump of a tree, said to be the last survivor of a holy grove round which the original settlement of Vindomina sprang up. It is full of nails driven into it by travelling journeymen.

The Ring-Strasse ranks as one of the most imposing achievements of modern street architecture. Opposite the Hofburg, the main body of which is separated from the Ring-Strasse by the Hofgarten and Volksgarten, rise the handsome monument of the empress Maria Theresa (erected 1888) and the imperial museums of art and natural history, two extensive Renaissance edifices with domes (erected 1870–89), matching each other in every particular and grouping finely with the new part of the palace. Hans Makart's painted dome in the natural history museum is the largest pictorial canvas in the world. Adjoining the museums to the west is the palace of justice (1881), and this is closely followed by the houses of parliament (1883), in which the Grecian style has been successfully adapted to modern requirements. Beyond the houses of parliament stands the new Rathaus, an immense and lavishly decorated Gothic building, erected in 1873–83. It was designed by Friedrich Schmidt (1825–1891), who may be described as the chief exponent of the modern Gothic tendency as T. Hansen and G. Semper, the creators respectively of the parliament house and the museums, are the leaders of the Classical and Renaissance styles which are so strongly represented in Viennese architecture. Opposite the Rathaus, on the inner side of the Ring, is the new court theatre, another specimen of Semper's Renaissance work, finished in 1889. To the north stands the new building of the university, a Renaissance structure by H. von Ferstel, erected in 1873–84 and rivalling the Rathaus in extent. Near the university, and separated from the Ring by a garden, stands the votive church in Alsergrund, completed in 1879, and erected to commemorate the emperor's escape from assassination in 1853, one of the most elaborate and successful of modern Gothic churches (Ferstel). The other important buildings of the Ring-Strasse include the magnificent opera house, built 1861–69, by E. Van der Nüll (1812–1868) and A. von Siccardsburg (1813–1868), the sumptuous interior of which vies with that of Paris; the academy of art, built in 1872–76; the exchange, built in 1872–77, both by Hansen; and the Austrian museum of art and industry, an Italian Renaissance building erected by Ferstel in 1868–71. On the north side the Ring-Strasse gives place to the spacious Franz Josef's quay, flanking the Danube Canal. The municipal districts outside the Ring also contain numerous handsome modern buildings. Vienna possesses both in the inner city and the outlying districts numerous squares adorned with artistic monuments. One of the finest squares in the world for the beauty of the buildings which encircle it is the Rathausplatz, adjoining the Ring-Strasse.

Vienna is the intellectual as well as the material capital of Austria—emphatically so in regard to the German part of the empire. Its university, established in 1365, is now attended by nearly 6000 students, and the medical faculty enjoys a world-wide reputation. Its scientific institutions are headed by the academy of science. The academy of art was founded in 1707.

Museums.—In the imperial art-history museum are stored the extensive art-collections of the Austrian imperial family, which were formerly in the Hofburg, in the Belvedere, and in other places. It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities, of coins and medals, and of industrial art. The last contains valuable specimens of the industrial art of the middle ages and of the Renaissance period in gold, silver, bronze, glass, enamel, ivory, iron and wood. The famous salt-cellar (saliera) of Benvenuto Cellini, executed in 1539–43 for Francis I. of France, is here. Then comes the collection of weapons and armour, including the famous Ambras collection, so called after the castle of Ambras near Innsbruck, where it was for a long time stored. The picture gallery, which contains the collection formerly preserved in the Belvedere palace, contains masterpieces of almost every school in the world, but it is unsurpassed for its specimens of Rubens, Dürer and the Venetian masters. Next come the imperial treasury at the Hofburg, already mentioned; the famous collection of drawings and engravings known as the Albertina in the palace of the archduke Frederick, which contains over 200,000 engravings and 16,000 drawings; the picture gallery of the academy of art; the collection of the Austrian museum of art and industry; the historical museum of the city of Vienna; and the military museum at the arsenal. Besides, there are in Vienna a number of private picture galleries of great importance. The largest is that belonging to Prince Liechtenstein, containing about 800 paintings, and specially rich in important works by Rubens and Van Dyck; the picture gallery of Count Harrach, with over 400 paintings, possessing numerous examples of the later Italian and French schools; that of Count Czernin, with over 340 paintings; and that of Count Schönborn, with 110 pictures. The imperial natural history museum contains a mineralogical, geological and zoological section, as well as a prehistoric and ethnographical collection. Its botanic collection contains the famous Vienna herbarium, while to the university is attached a fine botanical garden. Besides the Hofburg library, there are important libraries belonging to the university and other societies, the corporation and the various monastic orders.

Parks, &c.—The Prater, a vast expanse (2000 acres) of wood and park on the east side of the city, between the Danube and the Danube Canal, is greatly frequented by all classes. The exhibition of 1873 was held in this park, and several of its buildings, including the large rotunda, have been left standing. Other parks are the Hofgarten, the Volksgarten and the Town Park, all adjoining the Ring-Strasse, the Augarten in the Leopoldstadt, the Belvedere Park in the Landstrasse, the Esterhazy Park in Mariahilf, and the Turkenschanz Park in Dobling. Among the most popular resorts are the parks and gardens belonging to the imperial châteaux of Schönbrunn and Laxenburg.

Government and Administration.—Vienna is the residence of the emperor of Austria, the seat of the Austrian ministers, of the Reichsrat and of the Diet of Lower Austria. It is also the seat of the common ministries for the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, of the foreign ambassadors and general consuls and the meeting-place, alternately with Budapest, of the Austro-Hungarian delegations. It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister. The municipal council is composed of 158 members elected for a period of six years. The long struggle between the municipality and the Austrian ministry arising out of the refusal to sanction the election (1895) of Dr Lueger, the anti-Semitic leader and champion, recalls in some respects the Wilkes incident in London. In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.

The cost of the transformation of Vienna, which has been in progress since 1858, cannot be said to have fallen heavily on the population. Great part of the burden has been borne throughout by the “City Extension Fund,” realized from the utilization of the ground formerly occupied by the fortifications and glacis. The subsequent regulation of the former suburbs has to a large extent covered its own expenses through the acquisition by the town of the improved area. The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration. In spite of shortsighted parsimony in the matter of schools, &c., and increased resources through the allocation to the municipality of a certain percentage of new state and provincial taxation, their anti-Semitic successors have been unable to avoid a deficit, and have been obliged to increase the rates. But the direct damage done in this and other ways would seem to be less than that produced by the mistrust they inspired for a time among the propertied classes, and the consequent paralysing of enterprise. Their violent anti-Magyar attitude has driven away a certain amount of Hungarian custom, and helped to increase the political difficulties of the cis-Leithan government.

Vienna is situated at an altitude of 550 ft. above the level of the sea, and possesses a healthy climate. The mean annual temperature is 48.6° F., and the range between January and July is about 40° F. The climate is rather changeable, and rapid falls of temperature are not uncommon. Violent storms occur in spring and autumn, and the rainfall, including snow, amounts to 25 in. a year. Vienna has one of the best supplies of drinking water of any European capital. The water is brought by an aqueduct direct from the Alps, viz. from the Schneeberg, a distance of nearly 60 m. to the south-west. These magnificent waterworks were opened in 1873, and their sanitary influence was soon felt, in the almost complete, disappearance of typhoid fever, which had numerous victims before.

Great enlargements, by tapping new sources of supply, were made in 1891–93, while since 1902 works have been in progress for bringing a new supply of pure water from the region of the Salza, a distance of nearly 150 m. Another sanitary work of great importance was the improvement carried out in the drainage system, and the regulation of the river Wien. This river, which, at ordinary times, was little more than an ill-smelling brook at one side of an immense bed, was occasionally converted into a formidable and destructive torrent. Now half the bed of the river has been walled over for the metropolitan railway, while the other half has been deepened, and the portion of it within the town has been arched over. A beginning was thus made for a new and magnificent avenue in the neighbourhood of the Ring-Strasse.

Population.—In 1800 the population of the old districts was 231,050; in 1840, 356,870; in 1857, 476,222 (or with suburbs, 587,235); in 1869, 607,514 (with suburbs, 842,951); in 1880, 704,756 (with suburbs, 1,090,119); in 1890, town and suburbs, 1,364,548; and in 1900, 1,662,269, including the garrison of 26,629 men. Owing to the peculiarities of its situation, the population of Vienna is of a very cosmopolitan and heterogeneous character. Its permanent population (some 45.5% are born in the city) is recruited from all parts of Austria, and indeed of the entire monarchy. The German element is, of course, the most numerous, but there are also a great number of Hungarians, Czechs and other Slavs.

Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste. The Italian colony now numbers about 2500 (chiefly navvies and masons), in addition to some 1400 Austrian subjects of that nationality. At present the largest and most regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being those from Lower Austria and Styria. This steady and increasing influx of Czechs is gradually infusing a large proportion of Slav blood in what Bismarck (in 1864) described as the German capital of a Slav empire. Formerly the Czech labourers, artisans and domestic servants who came to Vienna were somewhat ashamed of their mother-tongue, and anxious to conceal that evidence of their origin as speedily as possible. The revival of the nationality agitation has produced a marked change in this respect. The Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, which is further retarded by their national organization, and the provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) and places of resort. The consequence is that they take a pride in accentuating their national characteristics, a circumstance which threatens to develop into a new source of discord. In 1900 the population included 1,386,115 persons of German nationality, 102,974 Czechs and Slovaks, 4346 Poles, 805 Ruthenians, 1329 Slovenes, 271 Serbo-Croatians, and 1368 Italians, all Austrian subjects. To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coming next in order with 146,926. Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of Fngland, 490; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.

As a general rule, the Viennese are gay, pleasure-loving and genial. The Viennese women are justly celebrated for their beauty and elegance, and dressing as a fine art is cultivated here with almost as great success as in Paris. As a rule, the Viennese are passionately fond of dancing; and the city of Strauss, J. F. K. Lanner (1801–1843) and J. Gung'l (1810–1889) gives name to a “school” of waltz and other dance music. Opera, especially in its lighter form, flourishes, and the actors of Vienna maintain with success a traditional reputation of no mean order. Its chief place in the history of art Vienna owes to its musicians, among whom are counted Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. The Viennese school of painting is of modern origin; but some of its members, for instance, Hans Makart (1840–1884), have acquired a European reputation.

Trade.—Vienna is the most important commercial and industrial centre of Austria. For a long time the Austrian government, by failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let slip the opportunity of making the city the great Danubian metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be. But during the last quarter of the 19th century active steps were taken to foster the economic interests of the city. The regulation of the Danube, mentioned above, the conversion of the entire Danube Canal into a harbour, the construction of the navigable canal Danube–March–Oder—all gave a new impetus to the trade of Vienna. The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna also contribute to the same effect. Vienna carries on an extensive trade in corn, flour, cattle, wine, sugar and a large variety of manufactured articles. Besides the Danube it is served by an extensive net of railways, which radiate from here to every part of the empire.

The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and carriages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood furniture, textiles and chemicals. In the number and variety of its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious metals, objets d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and optical instruments, and artistic products generally. Its articles of clothing, silk goods and millinery also enjoy a great reputation for the taste with which they are manufactured. Books, artistic publications, paper and beer are amongst the other principal products. The building trade and its allied trades are also active.

History.—For several centuries Vienna filled an important role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character. The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and established a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect the northern frontier of the empire. The fortress grew in importance, and was afterwards made a municipium; and here Marcus Aurelius died in 180. On the decline of the Roman empire Vindobona became the prey of successive barbarian invaders. Attila and his Huns were among the temporary occupants of the place (5th century), and in the following century it came into the possession of the Avars, after which its name disappears from history until towards the close of the 8th century, when Charlemagne expelled the Avars and made the district between the Enns and the Wiener Wald the boundary of his empire. In the time of Otho II. (976) this “East Mark” (Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Babenbergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (1156) it was advanced to the rank of a duchy. There is no certain record that the site of Vindobona was occupied at the time of the formation of the Ostmark, though many considerations make it probable. It is not likely that the Avars, living in their “ring” encampments, destroyed the Roman municipium; and Bécs, the Hungarian name for Vienna to this day, is susceptible of a Slavonic interpretation only, and would seem to indicate that the site had been occupied in Slavonic times. The frequent mention of “Wiene” in the oldest extant version of the Nibelungenlied points in the same direction. Passing over a doubtful mention of “Vwienni” in the annals of 1030, we find the “civitas” of Vienna mentioned in a document of 1130, and in 1136 it became the capital and residence of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott. In 1237 Vienna received a charter of freedom from Frederick II., confirmed in 1247. In the time of the crusades Vienna increased so rapidly, in consequence of the traffic that flowed through it, that in the days of Ottacar II. of Bohemia (1251–76), the successor of the Babenbergers, it had attained the dimensions of the present inner town. A new era of power and splendour begins in 1276, when it became the capital of the Habsburg dynasty, after the defeat of Ottacar by Rudolph of Habsburg. From this time on it has shared the fortunes of the house of Austria. In 1477 Vienna was besieged unsuccessfully by the Hungarians, and in 1485 it was taken by Matthew Corvinus. Of more importance were the two sieges by the Turks (1529 and 1683), when the city was saved on the first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm (1459–1530), and on the second by Rüdiger von Starhemberg (1638–1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and Germans under John Sobieski of Poland. The suburbs, however, were destroyed on both occasions. In 1805, and again in 1809, Vienna was for a short time occupied by the French. In 1814–15 it was the meeting-place of the congress which settled the political affairs of Europe after the overthrow of Napoleon. In 1848 the city was for a time in the hands of the revolutionary party, but it was bombarded by the imperial forces and compelled to surrender on 30th October of the same year. Vienna was not occupied by the Prussians in the war of 1866, but the invaders marched to within sight of its towers. In 1873 a great international exhibition took place here.

While Berlin and Budapest have made the most rapid progress of all European cities, having multiplied their population by nine in the period 1800–90, Vienna—even including the extensive annexations of 1892—only increased sevenfold. Many causes conspired to this end, but most of them date from the years 1859, 1866 and 1867. The combined effect of these successive blows, aggravated by the long period of decentralizing policy from Taaffe to Badeni, is still felt in the Kaiserstadt. The gaiety of Vienna had for centuries depended on the brilliancy of its court, recruited from all parts of Europe, including the nobility of the whole empire, and on its musical, light-hearted and contented population. Even before it fell from its high estate as the social centre of the German-speaking world, it had suffered severely by the crushing defeats of 1859 and the consequent exodus of the Austrian nobles. These were held responsible for the misfortunes of the army, and to escape the atmosphere of popular odium retired to their country seats and the provincial capitals. They have never since made Vienna their home to the same extent as before. The change thus begun was confirmed by the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the restoration of her Constitution to Hungary, events which gave an immense impetus to the two rival capitals. Thus within eight years the range of territory from which Vienna drew its former throngs of wealthy pleasure-seeking visitors and more or less permanent inhabitants—Italian, German and Hungarian—was enormously restricted. Since then Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the removal of the fortifications. But a decline of its importance, similar to that within the larger sphere which it influenced prior to 1859, has continued uninterruptedly within the Habsburg dominions up to the present day. Its commercial classes constantly complain of the increasing competition of the provinces, and of the progressive industrial emancipation of Hungary. The efforts of the Hungarians to complete their social and economic, no less than their political, emancipation from Austria and Vienna have been unremittingly pursued. The formal recognition of Budapest as a royal residence and capital in 1892, and the appointment of independent Hungarian court functionaries in November 1893, mark new stages in its progress. It would no longer be correct to speak of Vienna as the capital of the dual monarchy. It merely shares that distinction with Budapest.

Bibliography.—K. von Lutzow and L. Tischler, Wiener Neubauten (6 vols., Wien, 1889–97); M. Bermann, Alt- und Neuwien (2nd ed., Wien, 1903), edited by Schimmer; E. Guglia, Geschichte der Stadt Wien (Wien, 1892); H. Zimmermann, Geschichte der Stadt Wien (2 vols., Wien, 1897–1900); Hickmann, Wien im 19. Jahrhundert (Wien, 1903); Wien, 1848–88, published by the Vienna corporation; Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Wien, annually since 1883; Geschichte der Stadt Wien, published by the Vienna Alterthumsverein since 1897.